Renon

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 Disambiguazione – Se stai cercando altri significati, vedi Renon (disambigua).

Renon
comune

(IT) Renon
(DE) Ritten

 

 

Localizzazione

Stato Italia

Regione Trentino-Alto Adige

Provincia Bolzano

Amministrazione

CapoluogoCollalbo

SindacoPaul Lintner (SVP) dal 22-9-2020 (3º mandato)

Lingue ufficialiItalianoTedesco

Territorio

Coordinate
del capoluogo46°32′25.4″N 11°27′25.3″E

Coordinate46°32′25.4″N 11°27′25.3″E (Mappa)

Altitudine1 154 m s.l.m.

Superficie111,36 km²

Abitanti7 989[2] (31-8-2020)

Densità71,74 ab./km²

FrazioniVedi elenco

Comuni confinantiBarbianoBolzanoCastelrottoCornedo all'IsarcoFiè allo SciliarSan Genesio AtesinoSarentinoVillandro

Altre informazioni

Cod. postale39054;

39040 (Campodazzo)

Prefisso0471

Fuso orarioUTC+1

Codice ISTAT021072

Cod. catastaleH236

TargaBZ

Cl. sismicazona 4 (sismicità molto bassa)[3]

Cl. climaticazona F, 4 223 GG[4]

Nome abitanti(IT) renonesi
(DE) Rittner[1]

Cartografia

 

Collalbo

 

Posizione del comune di Renon nella provincia autonoma di Bolzano

Sito istituzionale

Modifica dati su Wikidata · Manuale

Renon (Ritten in tedesco, Renon in ladino) è un comune italiano sparso di 7 989 abitanti della provincia autonoma di Bolzano in Trentino-Alto Adige.

Indice

Geografia fisica[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Delimitato a est dalla val d'Isarco e a ovest dalla val Sarentino con il torrente Talvera, è situato sull'omonimo altopiano del Renon sovrastante a nord-est il capoluogo atesino Bolzano.

 

La chiesa di San Nicolò nella frazione Monte di Mezzo (Mittelberg)

Frazioni[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Il comune sparso di Renon si trova sull'omonimo altopiano, ha la sede comunale a Collalbo/Klobenstein mentre le frazioni, alcune delle quali in passato erano comuni autonomi, sono le seguenti: Auna di Sopra/Oberinn, Auna di Sotto/Unterinn, Campodazzo/Atzwang, Colle Renon/Rappersbühl, Costalovara/Wolfsgruben, Longomoso/Lengmoos, Longostagno/Lengstein, Madonnina/Gissmann, Monte di Mezzo/Mittelberg, Signato/Signat, Sill, Soprabolzano/Oberbozen, Stella di Renon/Lichtenstern, Vanga/Wangen.[5]

Origini del nome[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Il toponimo è attestato come Ritano nell'871-875[6], come Ritena nel 1027, come Ritine nel 1160 e come Rithen nel 1179 e deriva dal latino volgare *"retinone", di probabile origine preromana.[7][8]

Storia[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Siccome la stretta della Val d'Isarco era poco praticabile fino nel primo XIV secolo (quando fu costruita la Kuntersweg, ad opera dell'imprenditore bolzanino Heinrich Kunter)[9], il Renon fungeva nei secoli centrali del medioevo come tratta intermedia di collegamento sulla via del Brennero che collegava la Germania con l'Italia. Il cosiddetto Kaiserweg[10] ("via imperiale") si snodava da Colma (Kollmann), passando per Longomoso (Lengmoos) e riscendendo verso Rencio, quartiere di Bolzano.[11] La via prese il nome dal fatto che un gran numero di re germanici e imperatori del Sacro Romano Impero la percorsero, fra cui Corrado II e Federico I, il quale nel 1179 concesse peraltro un importante privilegio di mercato a Lengenstaine in monte Rithen (Longostagno, Lengstein).[12] All'importanza della via si deve anche l'istituzione, nel primo Duecento, di un centro dell'Ordine Teutonico sul Renon.

I diritti dell'alpeggio sul contiguo altipiano di Villandro sono stati contesi per lunghi secoli fra le comunità del Renon e di Villandro.[13]

Stemma[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Lo stemma è costituito da due scaglioni d'argento arcuati su sfondo rosso; è il motivo delle insegne dei Signori di Zwingenstein che amministrarono il villaggio dall'omonimo castello fino al 1531. Lo stemma è stato adottato nel 1967.[14]

Monumenti e luoghi d'interesse[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Architetture religiose[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Aree naturali[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Sul suo territorio, nei pressi di Soprabolzano e a Longostagno (Lengstein), si trovano diversi gruppi di piramidi di terra in Alto Adige di colore rossastro, le piramidi di terra del Renon. L'erosione di acqua o neve fanno sì che si creino questi pinnacoli sovrastati da un masso che li protegge. Quando la piramide si assottiglia il masso crolla e la piramide scompare. Le più importanti, visibili anche dalla funivia, si trovano nella valle del rio Rivellone (Katzenbachtal).[15]

Società[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Ripartizione linguistica[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

La sua popolazione è in maggioranza di madrelingua tedesca:

Ripartizione linguistica1991[16]2001[16]2011[17]

Madrelingua italiana3,36%3,77%4,55%

Madrelingua tedesca96,43%95,96%95,20%

Madrelingua ladina0,20%0,26%0,25%

Evoluzione demografica[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Abitanti censiti[18]

Economia[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Turismo[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Già all'inizio del Novecento era una meta turistica e di soggiorno dell'aristocrazia e borghesia bolzanina, soprattutto nel periodo estivo, per via della sua vicinanza alla città (collegata con la cremagliera) e le temperature meno calde e meno afose che in fondovalle. Il fenomeno della cosiddetta Sommerfrische ("frescura d'estate") fu coniato proprio qui e si propagò dagli anni 1840, grazie a scrittori come Ludwig Steub o Beda Weber, in tutta l'area germanofona.[19]

Le rovine di castel Pietra (Stein am Ritten) e castel Zwingenstein possono essere meta di alcune comode passeggiate.

Illustre personaggio amante del fascino del Renon, dove ha trascorso per molti anni parte delle sue vacanze è stato Sigmund Freud. In suo onore è stata intitolata anche una delle innumerevoli passeggiate presenti sull'altopiano che parte dalla frazione di Collalbo, località Schönblick, per arrivare nella frazione di Soprabolzano.

Industria[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Ditte note a livello anche internazionale sono la Loacker, la Finstral e la Daunenstep; tutte e tre sono localizzate ad Auna di Sotto (Unterinn), a circa 900 m s.l.m. lungo la strada che collega Collalbo con Bolzano.

Infrastrutture e trasporti[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Renon è collegato a Bolzano da una strada provinciale e dalla funivia del Renon, inaugurata nel 1966 in sostituzione del tratto Bolzano-Soprabolzano della ferrovia del Renon, e completamente rinnovata dal 23 maggio 2009.

Della summenzionata ferrovia, aperta nel 1907, resta in funzione la tratta a scartamento ridotto che collega le frazioni di Maria Assunta (Maria Himmelfahrt) con Collalbo (Klobenstein), passando da Soprabolzano (Oberbozen, stazione a monte della funivia), lago di Costalovara (Wolfsgruben, a qualche centinaio di metri) e Stella di Renon (Lichtenstern).

Tra il 1867 e il 1998 la frazione di Campodazzo è stata servita dall'omonima stazione, facente parte della ferrovia del Brennero, dismessa a seguito della deviazione di un lungo tratto della linea in una nuova galleria. La stazione, pur rimasta in piedi, è del tutto abbandonata.

Amministrazione[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

PeriodoPrimo cittadinoPartitoCaricaNote

20052010Ferdinand RottensteinerSVPSindaco

2010in caricaPaul LintnerSVPSindaco

Sport[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Nel comune altoatesino ha sede la compagine del Ritten Sport, società di hockey su ghiaccio tra le maggiori in Italia, con all'attivo diversi titoli; milita attualmente nell'Alps Hockey league e disputa le gare interne alla Arena Ritten nella frazione di Collalbo. All'interno della stessa Arena Ritten, Renon offre un anello di ghiaccio, l'Ice Rink Ritten, dove si svolgono gare internazionali di pattinaggio di velocità.

Nel territorio comunale, nella frazione di Castel Novale/Sill vicino al confine con i comuni di Bolzano e Sarentino, si trova un altro stadio del ghiaccio, il palaghiaccio Sill, che è tuttavia di proprietà del comune di Bolzano, che ospita le gare di Old Weasels Bozen e EV Bozen Eagles.

Nel comune di Renon vi sono gli impianti di risalita (per lo sci) per il Corno del Renon (2.260 m s.l.m.).

D'inverno è inoltre possibile pattinare sul lago ghiacciato di Costalovara.

Trentino-Alto Adige

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Trentino-Alto Adige
Regione italiana a statuto speciale

(IT) Trentino-Alto Adige[1]
(DE) Trentino-Südtirol[1]

 

(dettagli)(dettagli)

 

Palazzo della Regione, attuale sede del Consiglio regionale

Localizzazione

Stato Italia

Amministrazione

CapoluogoTrento[2]

PresidenteMaurizio Fugatti (LSP) dal 07-07-2021

Lingue ufficialiItalianotedescoladino

Data di istituzione1948

Territorio

Coordinate
del capoluogo46°04′N 11°07′E

Coordinate46°04′N 11°07′E (Mappa)

Altitudine749[3] m s.l.m.

Superficie13 605,5 km²

Abitanti1 078 746[4] (30-11-2020)

Densità79,29 ab./km²

ProvinceBolzanoTrento

Comuni282

Regioni confinanti Lombardia,
 Veneto,
 Grigioni ( Svizzera),
 Salisburghese ( Austria),
 Tirolo ( Austria)

Altre informazioni

Fuso orarioUTC+1

ISO 3166-2IT-32

Codice ISTAT04

Nome abitantitrentini e altoatesini (o sudtirolesi[5])

Rappresentanza parlamentare11 deputati
senatori

Cartografia

 

 

Mappa della regione con le sue due province autonome

Sito istituzionale

Modifica dati su Wikidata · Manuale

Il Trentino-Alto Adige (AFI/trenˈtino ˈalto ˈadiʤe/; Trentino-Südtirol in tedesco, Trentin-Südtirol in ladino[6][7][8]) è una regione italiana a statuto speciale dell'Italia nord-orientale di 1 078 746 abitanti[4], con capoluogo Trento.

La Regione fu assegnata all'Italia nel 1919 dal trattato di Saint Germain ma, a differenza di quanto avvenne regolarmente nel secolo precedente per l'annessione dei vari stati pre-unitari, nessun plebiscito fu convocato per sancire l'annessione al Regno d'Italia.

A seguito all'entrata in vigore del nuovo statuto di autonomia nel 1972,[9] la regione è stata ampiamente esautorata e gran parte delle competenze trasferite direttamente alla Provincia autonoma di Trento e alla Provincia autonoma di Bolzano. Questo assetto istituzionale è riconducibile alla diversa composizione linguistica della popolazione, quasi completamente di lingua italiana in Trentino e in maggioranza di lingua tedesca in Alto Adige con l'eccezione di cinque comuni (BolzanoBronzoloLaivesSalorno e Vadena) dove la maggioranza linguistica è quella italiana, e otto comuni (La ValleBadiaCorvara in BadiaMarebbeSan Martino in BadiaSanta Cristina ValgardenaSelva di Val GardenaOrtisei) dove la maggioranza linguistica è quella ladina.

Insieme al Veneto e al Friuli-Venezia Giulia appartiene alla macroarea geografica del Triveneto, mentre insieme allo stato federato del Tirolo, fa parte di un'associazione di cooperazione transfrontaliera istituita nell'ambito dell'Unione europea, l'euroregione Tirolo-Alto Adige-Trentino, che accorpa i territori dell'antica contea del Tirolo.

Indice

Geografia fisica[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

 

Chiesa della Visitazione della Beata Maria Vergine a Trafoi, sullo sfondo del massiccio dell'Ortles

 

Le Tre Cime di Lavaredo, nelle Dolomiti di Sesto, di Braies e d'Ampezzo

 

Il Gruppo del Sella, visto da Canazei

 

Le Pale di San Martino

 

Altimetrie del Trentino-Alto Adige

Il Trentino-Alto Adige è la regione italiana più settentrionale ed è considerata quasi interamente montuosa ad eccezione della Valle dell'Adige e della Valle dei Laghi sotto i 200 m e considerati dunque pianura. In particolare sono presenti in Provincia autonoma di Trento due ampie zone pianeggianti: la Piana Rotaliana e il Basso Sarca. Le catene montuose si innalzano fino a quote altimetriche di oltre 3 900 m. Nella parte meridionale della regione, presso la riva trentina del lago di Garda, l'altitudine scende a 65 m s.l.m.

Con i suoi 13607 km² il Trentino-Alto Adige è una delle regioni italiane meno densamente popolate in quanto ospita circa 1 050 000 abitanti per una densità di 78,98 ab/km², molto al di sotto della media nazionale, collocandosi al quintultimo posto, prima della Valle d'Aosta, della Basilicata, della Sardegna e del Molise nel rapporto tra numero di abitanti e superficie territoriale.

Considerata l'orografia del territorio, vi sono notevoli differenze fra la densità di abitanti delle zone di alta montagna (in cui si sono verificati fenomeni di spopolamento e di migrazione verso le città delle principali valli) e quella delle valli principali, in particolare la Valle dell'Adige, dove sorgono Trento e Bolzano.

Confini[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

La regione confina a est e sud-est con il Veneto, a ovest e sud-ovest con la Lombardia, a nord e a nord-est con i Länder austriaci Tirolo e Salisburghese, a nord-ovest con il cantone svizzero dei Grigioni. La valle Aurina è la valle più a nord di tutta l'Italia e Predoi il centro abitato più a settentrione situato tra i piedi della valle e la Vetta d'Italia, al confine austriaco.

La regione è compresa tra le Alpi Centrali e quelle orientali, mentre a sud il confine è delimitato dal lago di Garda e dalle Prealpi venete.

Orografia[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

 

Scorcio sulla Catena delle Maddalene (Alpi della Val di Non)

Nella parte settentrionale della regione, al confine austriaco, lungo la linea che va dal passo Resia al passo di Monte Croce di Comelico, si estendono le Alpi Retiche, che raggiungono la loro massima altezza nella Palla Bianca (3738 m s.l.m.) in valle Aurina, la Testa Gemella Occidentale(2837 m s.l.m.) viene riconosciuta dal 1997 quale punto più a nord della penisola italiana. Tradizionalmente è invece la Vetta d'Italia a essere considerata come estremità settentrionale dell'Italia.

Nella parte occidentale del Trentino-Alto Adige si elevano i gruppi dell'Ortles-Cevedale, tra cui l'Ortles, massima vetta della regione con i suoi 3905 m s.l.m., dell'Adamello-Presanella e delle Dolomiti di Brenta.

In Trentino-Alto Adige si erge la sezione occidentale delle Dolomiti (Dolomiti di SestoGruppo del PuezOdleSciliarSassolungoCatinaccioMarmoladagruppo di SellaLatemarPale di San Martino).

Proseguendo verso sud i rilievi montuosi degradano nelle Prealpi.

Le sezioni e sottosezioni alpine che interessano la regione sono così raggruppabili, in ordine di sezione secondo la SOIUSA:

Geologia[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Il Trentino-Alto Adige può essere divisa in due grandi aree geologiche: quella prevalentemente silicea, che si estende nella parte occidentale e settentrionale, e quella prevalentemente calcarea-dolomitica, nella parte meridionale e orientale.

Valli[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

 

Vista dal passo Stalle

La valle principale è la valle dell'Adige che si sviluppa da Merano a Rovereto passando per Bolzano e Trento.

Altre valli trentine sono la Valle di Primiero, la Val di Cembra, la Val di Fassa, la val di Fiemme, la Vallagarina, la Valle dei Laghi, la Valle di Ledro, la Valle dei Mocheni, la Val di Sole, la Val di Non (che si estende sia in Trentino sia in Alto Adige), la Val Rendena (con la sua valle laterale, cioè la Val Genova), la Valle delle Giudicarie (Valle del Chiese) e la Valsugana. Sono invece altoatesine la Val Passiria, la Val Martello, la Valle Isarco, la Val Gardena, la Val Pusteria, la Val Badia e la Val Venosta

La Val Monastero si estende in Trentino-Alto Adige e nel cantone svizzero dei Grigioni.

Passi[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Le singole voci sono elencate nella Categoria:Valichi del Trentino-Alto Adige

 

Panorama invernale da passo Rolle

Il passo del Brennero è il principale valico di frontiera fra l'Italia e l'Austria. Altri passi tra i due paesi sono il passo di Resia, il passo Stalle e il passo del Rombo.

Il passo dello Stelvio fra Trentino-Alto Adige e Lombardia è il valico automobilistico più alto d'Italia. Anche il passo del Tonale unisce le due regioni.

Le Porte del Pasubio, il passo Pordoi, il passo di Valparola, il passo Cimabanche, il passo di Monte Croce di Comelico, il passo Valles, il passo Fedaia e il passo di Campolongo si trovano a cavallo con il Veneto.

Il passo della Mendola, il passo Rolle, il passo Sella, il passo Furcia, il passo Gardena, il passo di Monte Giovo sono valichi interni al Trentino-Alto Adige.

Particolare è il caso del passo San Pellegrino che, pur collegando la località di Moena in val di Fassa (TN) con l'abitato di Falcade nella valle del Biòis (BL), risulta interamente compreso nel territorio del Trentino-Alto Adige, in quanto il confine con il Veneto si trova a circa quattro chilometri dal valico nel versante orientale e non sul passo vero e proprio. Simile è il Passo Vezzena, il cui territorio ricade completamente in Trentino fra i comuni di Levico e Luserna ma di fatto divide gli altipiani cimbri (Luserna, Folgaria e Lavarone) dall'altopiano di Asiago. Il confine reale si trova poco prima venendo da Asiago in località Termine.

Fiumi[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Il Trentino-Alto Adige è ricco di corsi d'acqua. Il fiume principale è l'Adige con gli affluenti PassirioIsarco (con il suo tributario Rienza), Noce e Avisio. Il Brenta nasce in Trentino-Alto Adige e sfocia nel mare Adriatico, il Sarca è un immissario del lago di Garda e il Chiese è un affluente del Po. La Drava nasce in Alto Adige, dove scorre per pochi chilometri entrando successivamente in territorio austriaco, ed è un affluente del Danubio. Rappresenta il fiume più lungo che bagna, almeno parzialmente, il territorio italiano.

Laghi[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

 

Il lago di Resia

 

Il lago di Molveno

Appartiene al Trentino-Alto Adige la parte settentrionale del lago di Garda, il maggiore lago della regione e d'Italia, suddiviso tra Trentino-Alto Adige, Veneto e Lombardia.

Il lago di Caldonazzo è il maggior lago naturale che si trova interamente nella regione. Il maggior bacino interno al Trentino-Alto Adige è però il lago di Resia, artificiale. Superano i 2 km² anche il lago di Santa Giustina (artificiale), il lago di Molveno, il lago di Ledro e il lago d'Idro (naturali).

Sono numerosi i laghetti di origine glaciale.

Clima[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

 

Il lago di Garda a Riva del Garda

Il clima del Trentino-Alto Adige presenta caratteristiche tipiche del clima continentale e di quello alpino di alta montagna, soprattutto in relazione all'altitudine. In base all'orografia, all'esposizione rispetto ai venti predominanti, alla quota e alla presenza dei grandi laghi alpini come quello di Garda, il clima può variare sensibilmente, fino a presentare i caratteri tipici del clima mediterraneo.

Le piogge variano in base alla quota e all'orientamento dei rilievi. In generale le maggiori precipitazioni cadono sui rilievi più elevati e nei settori meridionali e occidentali della regione, dove i venti occidentali e meridionali che accompagnano il passaggio delle perturbazioni atlantiche apportano umidità: qui le piogge ammontano a 1200–1400 mm annui. Procedendo verso nord e verso est le Alpi agiscono come una barriera e la piovosità annua decresce progressivamente scendendo sotto ai 1000 mm. In genere nei fondovalle cadono dai 700 ai 900 mm, ma nelle vallate più settentrionali dell'Alto Adige, schermate da rilievi elevati, le piogge annue scendono sotto ai 600 mm annui. Le precipitazioni cadono prevalentemente in estate sulle Dolomiti e sull'Alto Adige, mentre nel settore meridionale della regione i picchi di piovosità si osservano durante le stagioni intermedie. In inverno prevalgono precipitazioni a carattere nevoso, più abbondanti sui rilievi. Le precipitazioni fanno registrare un minimo in inverno.

I venti più frequenti sono di provenienza occidentale e meridionale specialmente durante le stagioni intermedie e nel periodo estivo. Viceversa in inverno prevalgono le correnti da nord o da est che apportano tempo freddo e asciutto. Le correnti meridionali sono le principali responsabili degli episodi di maltempo. Caratteristico delle vallate alpine è anche il Foehn.

Le estati sono calde con valori che superano facilmente i 30 °C e che in corrispondenza delle ondate di caldo possono toccare e anche superare 35 °C nelle conche interne (in particolare nella conca di Bolzano). Gli inverni sono rigidi. In Alto Adige e nelle zone di montagna più elevate le temperature scendono considerevolmente sotto allo 0 °C e questi sono tra i settori più freddi d'Italia, con valori estremi anche inferiori a -30 °C. Anche sulle rimanenti zone della regione gli inverni sono rigidi ma l'azione protettiva dei rilievi da un lato e quella mitigatrice del lago di Garda dall'altro smorza considerevolmente i rigori invernali. Durante le stagioni intermedie le temperature subiscono improvvise variazioni, ma generalmente le temperature sono abbastanza miti con medie che si attestano tra i 10 e i 15 °C nei fondovalle.[10]

Flora[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

 

Val Pusteria

Per la natura climatica e territoriale il Trentino-Alto Adige presenta ambienti che favoriscono tipi di flora considerevolmente differenti. Nella fascia più meridionale prossima al lago di Garda la vegetazione naturale è costituita da quercecastagniornielli e alcune specie tipiche del Mediterraneo come lecci e allori. Vi si coltivano anche la vite, il limone e l'Ulivo.

Verso nord prevalgono i carpini, i faggi e gli aceri fino a una quota di 1200–1400 m. Più in alto prevalgono abeti rossilarici e betulle che sopra i 2000 m cedono il posto ai pascoli Alpini e a una vegetazione tipica della tundra a causa della rigidità del clima.

Le vallate del Trentino (Val di Non e Valsugana) e dell'Alto Adige sono adatte alla coltivazione degli alberi da frutto, in particolare delle mele.[10]

 

Le Dolomiti di Brenta nel Trentino occidentale, inserite nel parco naturale Adamello-Brenta

Fauna[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

La fauna alpina caratterizza il Trentino-Alto Adige. I camosci sono abbastanza frequenti nella zona tra i 1300 e i 3000 m, i caprioli nella fascia tra 500 e 800 m. Lo stambecco, in passato già estintosi, venne reintrodotto nel Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio nel 1967. Si trovano anche cervi. Confinata tra i 2000 e i 3000 m vive la marmotta (in particolare in Val Rendena, nel Meranese e in genere nel Trentino occidentale). Nella regione prealpina si trovano le lepri grigie.[11]

Tra i carnivori vanno segnalati l'orso e il lupo. Alla fine degli anni novanta del Novecento solo tre orsi erano ancora presenti sulle montagne del Gruppo del Brenta. La situazione si è ripresa e la popolazione di orsi in Trentino-Alto Adige e nelle zone limitrofe veniva stimata nel 2017 in circa 52-63 esemplari.[12][13] La ricomparsa dell'orso ha destato forti emozioni tra la popolazione e un particolare interesse mediatico (in particolare l'orso Bruno, abbattuto in Baviera nel 2006,[14] e l'orsa Daniza, morta dopo la cattura nel 2014[15]). Il lupo, scomparso nella seconda metà del XIX secolo, è tornato in Trentino-Alto Adige nel 2008. Da allora ci sono state alcune rare segnalazioni della sua presenza.[16][17] Allo stato attuale, la popolazione di lupi si aggira intorno ai cinquanta esemplari.[18] Anche la presenza della lince, data per estinta, è stata di nuovo rilevata.[19]

Tra gli uccelli stanziali di montagna si trovano il gallo cedrone, la coturnice e la starna, così come il fagiano di monte, l'aquila e il gufo reale.[11]

Aree protette[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Aree naturali protette del Trentino-Alto Adige.

 

Il lago di Fiè (Parco naturale dello Sciliar)

Nel territorio regionale è presente un parco nazionale, il parco Nazionale dello Stelvio, istituito nel 1935, che si estende anche in Lombardia.

Il Trentino-Alto Adige conta anche dieci parchi provinciali, di cui due in Trentino (tra cui il Parco naturale provinciale dell'Adamello-Brenta, che è il più esteso parco provinciale della regione) e otto in Alto Adige: tra quelli altoatesini il più grande è il Parco naturale Gruppo di Tessa, mentre il Parco naturale dello Sciliar è il primo parco istituito in provincia di Bolzano (1974). Il primo parco provinciale a essere istituito in regione è stato il Parco naturale Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino in Trentino, nel 1967.

Diverse sono poi le riserve regionali (tra cui la Riserva naturale integrale delle Tre Cime del Monte Bondone), le zone di protezione speciale e le altre aree protette (biotopi, tra cui il Biotopo Laghetto di Gargazzone) presenti in Trentino-Alto Adige. Il lago di Tovel viene annoverato tra le zone umide italiane della lista di Ramsar.

Storia[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Storia del Trentino e Storia dell'Alto Adige.

Epoca preromana[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

 

Ricostruzione delle palafitte dell'età del bronzo presso il lago di Ledro

I rinvenimenti archeologici dimostrano la presenza dell'uomo nelle valli del Trentino-Alto Adige dopo la fine dell'ultima glaciazione, intorno al 12.000 a.C. Risalgono a epoca mesolitica insediamenti nella valle dell'Adige, la zona più adatta alle attività umane per il suo clima e la posizione di centralità rispetto alle valli laterali.

La celebre mummia del Similaun, nota anche come Ötzi, avrebbe un'età di circa 5.300 anni. Questo la pone nell'età del rame, momento di transizione tra il neolitico e l'età del bronzo.

Tra l'età del bronzo e la prima età del ferro si sviluppò la cultura di Luco-Meluno. Essa ebbe origine nel XIV secolo a.C. nella valle dell'Adige tra Trento e Bolzano e raggiunse il suo apice tra il XIII e l'XI secolo a.C., soprattutto grazie all'estrazione del rame, materiale necessario per la produzione del bronzo.

Intorno al 500 a.C. si sviluppò la cultura di Fritzens-Sanzeno, conosciuta anche come la cultura dei Reti, che prese il posto della cultura di Luco-Meluno a sud dello spartiacque alpino e della cultura dei campi d'urne a nord dello stesso. Secondo lo storico romano Tito Livio i Reti sarebbero della stessa etnia degli Etruschi.

Epoca romana

Bolzano

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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This article is about the city in Italy. For the mathematician, see Bernard Bolzano. For other uses, see Bolzano (disambiguation).

"Bozen" redirects here. For other uses, see Bozen (disambiguation).

Bolzano

Bozen  (Austrian German)
Bozn  (Bavarian)

Comune

Comune di Bolzano
Stadt Bozen

 

Panorama of Bolzano

 

Coat of arms

show

Location of Bolzano

 

Bolzano

Location of Bolzano in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol

Show map of ItalyShow map of Trentino-Alto Adige/SüdtirolShow all

Coordinates: 46°30′N 11°21′ECoordinates46°30′N 11°21′E

CountryItaly

RegionTrentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol

ProvinceSouth Tyrol (BZ)

Government

 • MayorRenzo Caramaschi (PD)

Area

[1]

 • Total52.3 km2 (20.2 sq mi)

Elevation262 m (860 ft)

Population

 (March 2018)[2]

 • Total107,436

 • Density2,100/km2 (5,300/sq mi)

Demonym(s)Italian: bolzanini
German: Bozner or Bozener
Ladin: bulsanins

Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)

 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)

Postal code

39100

Dialing code0471

WebsiteOfficial website

Bolzano (Italian: [bolˈtsaːno] (listen) or [bolˈdzaːno]Austrian German: Bozen, pronounced [ˈboːt͡sn̩] (listen) (formerly Botzen); Bavarian: Bozn; Ladin: Balsan or Bulsan) is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy. With a population of 108,245, Bolzano is also by far the largest city in South Tyrol and the third largest in historical Tyrol. The greater metro area has about 250,000 inhabitants and is one of the urban centers within the Alps.[3]

Bolzano is the seat of the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, where lectures and seminars are held in English, German, and Italian. The city is also home to the Italian Army's Alpini High Command (COMALP) and some of its combat and support units.[4]

In the 2020 version of the annual ranking of quality of life in Italian cities, Bolzano was ranked joint first for quality of life alongside Bologna.[5]

Along with other Alpine towns in South Tyrol, Bolzano engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention. The Convention aims to promote and achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc. Consequently, Bolzano was awarded Alpine Town of the Year 2009.

Bolzano is considered a bridge between Northern Europe and Southern Europe due to the three spoken languages in South Tyrol (ItalianGerman, and Ladin) and the confluence of Italian and German-Austrian culture.

Contents

Geography[edit]

 

Bolzano and the Alps

Location[edit]

The area of the city of Bolzano is 52.3 km2 (20 sq. mi.), of which 28 km2 (10 sq. mi.) is used as a settlement area. The city is located in the basin where the SarntalEisacktal, and the Adige Valley with their rivers, TalferEisack, and Adige, meet. In the Middle Ages, the two main Alpine crossings, the Via Claudia Augusta over Reschenpass and the Brenner route over Brenner Pass, met in Bolzano. Thus, the city was very important for the trade. The highest point is 1616 metres (5302') above sea level and the lowest point is 232 metres (761') above sea level. The center is located at an altitude of 262 metres (860') above sea level. The nearest big cities are 58 km (36 miles) (Trento) and 118 km (73 miles) (Innsbruck) away.

City districts and neighbouring communities[edit]

 

Aerial view of Bolzano

City districts (most district names were originally in German and italianized at a later stage):

  • Centro-Piani-Rencio (German: Zentrum-Bozner Boden-Rentsch)

  • Don Bosco (German: Don Bosco-Neugries)

  • Europa-Novacella (German: Europa-Neustift)

  • Gries-San Quirino (German: Gries-Quirein)

  • Oltrisarco-Aslago (German: Oberau-Haslach)

In 1911 Zwölfmalgreien and in 1925 the municipality Gries were incorporated in the city of Bolzano. Neighbouring communities are: EppanKarneidLaivesDeutschnofenRittenJenesienTerlan and Vadena.

Climate[edit]

Being located at multiple climate borders, Bolzano features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with hot summers and very cold winters by Italian standards. According to the Trewartha classification, this climate could not be really considered a subtropical climate because fewer than 8 months are at least 10 °C (50 °F), and thus would be considered a semi-continental climate with hot summers. Some of its suburbs are designated an oceanic climate (Cfb) based on cooler summer temperatures, while mountains in the area may feature a continental climate (Dfb). The climate of Bolzano is influenced by its low altitude in a valley south of the main alps. This causes very sheltered conditions from cool winds during daytime, ensuring much warmer temperatures year-round than in similar valley cities north of the range.

hideClimate data for Bolzano (1971–2000, extremes 1946–present)

MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear

Record high °C (°F)21.8
(71.2)23.1
(73.6)28.4
(83.1)32.0
(89.6)35.0
(95.0)40.0
(104.0)39.1
(102.4)39.1
(102.4)33.3
(91.9)28.2
(82.8)21.6
(70.9)18.0
(64.4)40.0
(104.0)

Average high °C (°F)6.3
(43.3)9.5
(49.1)15.0
(59.0)18.5
(65.3)23.2
(73.8)26.5
(79.7)29.0
(84.2)28.5
(83.3)24.3
(75.7)17.9
(64.2)11.0
(51.8)6.6
(43.9)18.0
(64.4)

Daily mean °C (°F)0.9
(33.6)3.7
(38.7)8.5
(47.3)12.0
(53.6)16.5
(61.7)19.8
(67.6)22.3
(72.1)21.8
(71.2)17.9
(64.2)12.1
(53.8)5.4
(41.7)1.4
(34.5)11.9
(53.4)

Average low °C (°F)−4.5
(23.9)−2.1
(28.2)2.1
(35.8)5.4
(41.7)9.8
(49.6)13.2
(55.8)15.5
(59.9)15.1
(59.2)11.6
(52.9)6.2
(43.2)−0.1
(31.8)−3.7
(25.3)5.7
(42.3)

Record low °C (°F)−18.5
(−1.3)−15.6
(3.9)−10.7
(12.7)−4.4
(24.1)−2.6
(27.3)0.4
(32.7)5.2
(41.4)4.2
(39.6)−0.5
(31.1)−4.6
(23.7)−10.7
(12.7)−16.5
(2.3)−18.5
(−1.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches)23.5
(0.93)22.8
(0.90)36.9
(1.45)50.2
(1.98)75.2
(2.96)84.6
(3.33)92.3
(3.63)86.2
(3.39)70.9
(2.79)84.4
(3.32)49.9
(1.96)34.6
(1.36)711.5
(28.01)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)3.63.15.16.69.38.58.98.26.86.84.94.376.1

Average relative humidity (%)72696266696666687175747369

Mean monthly sunshine hours102.3121.5148.8159.0176.7201.0232.5213.9180.0151.9102.096.11,885.7

Source: Servizio Meteorologico (humidity and sun 1961–1990)[6][7][8]

Society[edit]

Largest groups of foreign residents

NationalityPopulation (2014)

 Albania2,607

 Morocco1,713

 Pakistan1,107

 Romania1,055

 Moldova676

Linguistic distribution[edit]

According to the 2011 census, 73.80% of the city's inhabitants spoke Italian, 25.52% German and 0.68% Ladin as their first language.[9]

Language2001[10]2011[9]

Italian73.00%74.20%

German26.29%25.12%

Ladin0.71%0.68%

Through fascism and the Italianization policy under Benito Mussolini in the inter-war period, the Italian language group became the majority in Bolzano. Prior to the annexation of South Tyrol to Italy (Treaty of Versailles, 1919) a small Italophone community of up to 10% of the population already lived in Bolzano.[11]

History[edit]

See also: Timeline of Bolzano

 

Bolzano in 1898

Prehistory and Roman settlement[edit]

The modern-day Bolzano was in ancient times a marshy region inhabited by the Raetian Isarci people, traditionally believed to be descendants of Etruscan refugees fleeing Italy from the invading Gauls.[12] The Romans built a settlement after the area had been conquered in 15 BC by General Nero Claudius Drusus. The military settlement, Pons Drusi (Drusus Bridge), was named after this Roman General. During this time the area became part of the region Venetia et Histria (Regio X) of ancient Italy.

In 1948, excavations of the current Cathedral led to the discovery of an ancient Christian basilica from the fourth century. Also discovered was a Roman cemetery, including the tomb of "Secundus Regontius" with Latin inscriptions dating to the third century, making him the oldest known inhabitant of Bolzano.[13]

Bavarian settlement[edit]

During the gradual decline of the Lombard influence in the seventh century, Bavarian immigration took place and the first mention of a Bavarian ruler in Bolzano dates from 679.[14] At that time, the Bavarians named the nearby villages around Bolzano Bauzanum or Bauzana.[15] In 769 Tassilo III, Duke of Bavaria issued in Bolzano the foundation charter of the Innichen Abbey.[16] German populations have been present in the region of Tyrol from that period onwards. At around the year 1000, the settlement is called "in Pauzana valle, quae lingua Teutisca Pozana nuncupatur".[17]

Bishopric of Trent[edit]

 

Lauben

In 1027 the area of Bolzano and the rest of the diocese was conferred, by the emperor Conrad II from the Salian dynasty, upon the bishops of Trent. In the late-12th century, the bishop founded a market town, along the Lauben thoroughfare. The town therefore became an important trading post on the Transalpine Augsburg-Venice route over the Brenner Pass, elevation 1,371 metres (4,498 ft) above sea level, within the Holy Roman Empire.[18]

County of Tyrol[edit]

In 1277 Bolzano was conquered by Meinhard II, the Count of Tyrol, leading to a struggle between the counts of Tyrol and the bishops of Trent. In 1363, the County of Tyrol fell under the influence of Habsburg Austria and the Holy Roman Empire. In 1381, Duke Leopold granted the citizens of Bolzano the privilege of a town council. This gradually eliminated the influence and power previously held by the bishops of Trent over the next few decades. In 1462, the bishops eventually resigned all their rights of jurisdiction over the town.[19]

 

Mercantile Building

 

The town's coat of arms as depicted in 1471 by the mayor Konrad Lerhueber

From the 14th and 15th centuries onwards, a large market fair was organised four times per year to greet tradesmen and merchants en-route the Brenner Pass. The Mercantile Magistrate was therefore founded in 1635 by the Austrian duchess Claudia de' Medici. During every market season, two Italian and two Germanic officers, who were appointed among the local tradesmen, worked in this magistrate office. The establishment of an official trade organisation strengthened Bolzano as a cultural crossroad in the Alps.[20]

 

Bolzano in 1914, at the outbreak of World War I

After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Bolzano became briefly part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and was incorporated into the Department of Alto Adige.[21] After the Congress of Vienna (1814-15) Bolzano returned to the County of Tyrol, within the Austrian Empire and subsequently the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary in 1867. The County covered both modern-day South TyrolTrentino and the federal state of Tyrol (including East Tyrol) in Austria.

In 1915, the Triple Entente powers promised Italy territorial gains if she would enter the First World War on the side of the Entente instead of siding with the German Empire and Austria-Hungary. When Italy abandoned the Triple Alliance (1882), the Entente offered her territorial promises in Tyrol and Istria. This secret arrangement was confirmed in the Treaty of London (1915).

After Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on May 24, 1915, heavy fighting took place all along Tyrol's southern border for the entire duration of the conflict. For the next 3 and a half years Tyrol's southern border became the front line between Austro-Hungarian and Italian troops. Tyrol's south frontier was - and still is - dotted with tens of defensive fortresses that had been built in view of a possible Italian attack.[citation needed] Losses on both sides amount to several thousands. During World War I, tens of thousands of civilians living along Tyrol's southern border were evacuated to either of the two countries, the majority to Bohemian and inner Austrian areas, and some to Italian internment camps, away from the front line.

Part of Italy[edit]

On November 3, 1918, the armistice of Villa Giusti, near Padova ended military operations between Italy and Austria-Hungary. Subsequently, Italian troops entered Tyrol and occupied the Austrian areas south of the Brenner Pass. Italian control of South Tyrol was internationally recognized in 1919. At the time of Bolzano's annexation by the Kingdom of Italy the town was settled primarily by a German-speaking population. As of 1910, 29,000 inhabitants identified themselves as German speakers and only 1,300 as Italian speakers, these latter ones mainly from the Italian speaking areas of Tyrol, namely Welschtirol, currently known as Trentino.[22]

 

Victory Monument

Along with the rest of South Tyrol, Bolzano was subjected to an intensive Italianisation programme enforced by Fascist leader Benito Mussolini from the 1920s onwards to September 8, 1943, when Italy left the military alliance with Nazi-Germany and South Tyrol fell under direct German control. The goal of such programme was to outnumber the local German-speaking population by tripling Bolzano's population through Italian immigration from other regions of Italy.[22] In 1927 Bolzano became the capital of the province of Bolzano. Any reference to and use of the words Tyrol and Tyrolean were banned by law and were punishable offences. In 1933, Adolf Hitler came to power in the Weimar Republic. Mussolini and the Fascists worried that Hitler, in pursuing his ideology of all ethnic Germans under one Reich, would claim South Tyrol from Italy. To avoid such prospect, in 1939 Mussolini and Hitler signed the Option Agreement, by which Germany would renounce territorial claims over South Tyrol as Germany's Lebensraum (living space). Furthermore, ethnic South-Tyroleans who had opted to stay in South Tyrol and refused resettlement to the Third Reich were subjected to full-scale Italianisation, including loss of their German names and national identity, prohibition of schooling in German and use of German for their daily transactions.[23]

Second World War[edit]

During the Second World War, Bolzano was the site of the Nazi's Bolzano Transit Camp, a concentration camp for persecuted Jews and political prisoners. Members of the Jewish population of Bolzano were deported to the death camps in the Reich and murdered there.[24] When Italy surrendered in September 1943, the whole of South Tyrol as well as Belluno were de facto administered by the Nazis as Operational Zone of the Alpine Foothills. After 1943, heavy fighting against Nazi Germany and the Allied Powers took place in the Dolomites.[25]

Capital of an autonomous province[edit]

After the War, the Gruber-De Gasperi Agreement of September 1946 was signed by the Italian and Austrian Foreign Ministers in Paris, guaranteeing "complete equality of rights" (including education and use of German as an official language) as well as "autonomous legislative and executive regional power" to the German-speaking population in South Tyrol and Trentino.[26]

Because the implementation of the post-war agreement was not seen as satisfactory by the Austrian government (the autonomous province of 1947 included Trentino and therefore had an Italian-speaking majority), it became a cause of significant friction with Italy and was brought to the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1960, which called for a resolution of the issue.[27] A fresh round of negotiations took place in 1961 but proved unsuccessful, partly because of the campaign of terrorism by South Tyrolean Liberation Committee – a secessionist movement – against Italian police and electric power structures (one notable incident being the Night of Fire on 12 June 1961).

The issue was resolved in 1971, when a new statute of autonomy for the smaller, majority German-speaking province Bozen – Südtirol/Bolzano – Alto Adige, which was supported by the German-speaking population of South Tyrol, was granted by Italy. It resulted in a considerable level of self-government,[28] also due to the large financial resources of South Tyrol, which retains almost 90% of all levied taxes.[29] The agreement was implemented and proved broadly satisfactory to the parties involved and the separatist tensions soon eased. In 1992, Austria and Italy officially ended their dispute over the autonomy issue on the basis of the statute of 1972.[30]

Economy and Research[edit]

Economy[edit]

The city thrives on a mix of old and new high-quality intensive agriculture (including winefruit, and dairy products), tourism, traditional handicraft (wood, ceramics), and advanced servicesHeavy industry (machinery, automotive, and steel) installed during the 1930s has now been mostly dismantled.[citation needed] The local economy is very dependent on the public sector and especially the provincial government.[citation needed]

Bolzano is the biggest city in South Tyrol, which is an autonomous province in Northern Italy with a special statute. This statute preserves the rights of the German-speaking minority in Italy. This unique system was admired by the Dalai Lama, who visited the city on several occasions to study a possible application in Tibet.[31] It has also been presented as role model for the successful and fair resolution of inter-ethnic conflict to other regions of the world.[32]

Exhibition Bolzano[edit]

 

Exhibition Centre

The tradeshows and conferences of the exhibition are concentrated on topics relating to the economies of Alpine countries. There is thus a great focus on tradeshow subjects within the economic competence of South Tyrol and Trentino. The main focuses of dining and leisure time, sports, agriculture, and specific Alpine industries attract an annual total of over 3,000 exhibitors and over 230,000 visitors from all over Europe.[33]

Italian German Business Forum Bozen-Bolzano[edit]

Since 2011, the city hosts the Italo-Germanic Business Forum, which brings together the leaders of the Italian and German economies – Confindustria and the Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie – in the Mercantile Palace to address issues related to the international crisis.

Companies[edit]

 

Oberalp Headquarters

Large companies in Bolzano are:

Research[edit]

NOI Techpark[edit]

 

NOI Techpark

NOI Techpark is on a 12-hectare (30 acre) site in the south of Bolzano, on premises formerly home to aluminium works. The "Nature of Innovation" concept contains: innovation imitating nature. This concept that NOI Techpark is based on, where research institutes, companies and start-ups from South Tyrol and all over the globe will work together to prepare the ground for a sustainable development.

Working with representatives from South Tyrol's business and research communities, BLS and TIS innovation park have developed the park's "Nature of Innovation" positioning title, the initials of which give the park its name: NOI. The name reflects two meanings in South Tyrol: depending on how you want to pronounce it, NOI can either sound like the Italian word for "we" or the South Tyrolean dialect word for "new". A special focus lies on those fields:

  • Alpine Technology

  • Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency

  • Food Technology

  • ICT & Automation

Free University of Bolzano-Bozen[edit]

The Free University of Bolzano-Bozen, founded in October 1997, is actively involved in basic and applied research projects through its five faculties, of which four are located in Bolzano. The university is engaged in a multitude of scientific and technological areas, in addition to different disciplines belonging to Humanities.[34]

Eurac Research[edit]

The Eurac Research is a private research center headquartered in Bolzano. The research facility was founded in 1992 and initially had 12 employees. Meanwhile, the Center for Applied Research has more than 300 employees. The topics of this institution include, for example, "Liveable Regions", "Diversity as Added Value" and "Healthy Society". The research has focused more on the Alpine region. Since 2002, the site has been located on Drusus Street, in the former fascist "GIL" building, which was then extensively renovated and integrated with modern buildings.[35] In 2018, the research facility will lead the terraXcube in the NOI Techpark Bolzano. The terraXcube is a research infrastructure that can simulate the most extreme climatic conditions on earth. Air pressure, humidity and solar radiation can be simulated and changed simultaneously in one room. The aim is to investigate how humans react to extreme climatic conditions. Even machines can be tested in this simulator.[36]

Fraunhofer Italia[edit]

Fraunhofer Italia is a subsidiary of Fraunhofer Gesellschaft and is headquartered in Bolzano. The company was founded in 2009 and since then specializes in areas such as "Automation and Mechatronic Engineering" and "Process Engineering in Construction". The Organization for Applied Research seeks to help small and medium-sized enterprises in the region through charitable research. Since 2017, the research facility has been based in the Technology Park in Bolzano South.[37]

Politics[edit]

City Council[edit]

 

Bolzano town hall

The last municipal elections were held in the year 2020. Of the 45 seats, 9 different parties were elected to the city council. The Partito Democratico (PD), the Südtiroler Volkspartei (SVP) and the Lega Nord (LN) won 7 seats each.

Mayors[edit]

See also: List of mayors of Bolzano

This table shows the mayors of the city of Bolzano after 1945. All mayors within this list belong to the Italian language group. So far, the last mayor of the German language group in Bolzano was Julius Perathoner from 1895 to 1922 and was replaced by the march on Bolzano by the fascists.

Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino[edit]

In 1996, the European Union approved further cultural and economic integration between the Austrian province of Tyrol and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino by recognizing the creation of the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino.

Main sights[edit]

 

Bolzano Cathedral

 

Castle Maretsch

 

The former Casa del Fascio, now bearing a quotation from Hannah Arendt

Its medieval city centre, Gothic and Romanesque churches and bilingual signage give it the flavour of a city at the crossroads of Italian and Austrian cultures. This and its natural and cultural attractions make it a popular tourist destination.

Among the major monuments and sights are:

For more historical and geographical information see South Tyrol.

Gallery[edit]

Culture[edit]

Museums[edit]

 

South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology

 

Runkelstein Castle

 

Museion

  • South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, is the exhibition location of the Ötzi. The museum also exhibits other archaeological finds from the South Tyrolean region. Due to the Ötzi, it is one of the leading archaeological museums in Italy.

  • Runkelstein Castle, was built in 1237 by the brothers Friedrich and Beral von Wangen. The castle became known for its extensive and profane fresco cycle from the Middle Ages.

  • Bolzano City Museum; The collections of the museum include works of art as paintings, sculptures, altars and folklore objects of daily life from all over South Tyrol. The access to the museum is limited and only a part of the valuable collection is visible. The museum, built in 1905, is in the planning stage for an extension that would be fully accessible.

  • Nature Museum South Tyrol, is dedicated to areas such as geology, flora and fauna. The exhibition shows the emergence of South Tyrolean landscapes, for example the Dolomites, and natural science collections from the South Tyrolean region.

  • Museion, is a museum of Modern and Contemporary Art. The museum was founded in 1985 and today, since 2008, has its headquarters on “Talferwiesen”. The modern cube, including bridges, was planned by the architects' office “Krüger, Schubert, Vandreike (KSV)”.

  • Mercantile Museum of Bolzano, tells about the economic history of Bolzano and its importance in Central Europe as a bridge between North and South. The museum used to be the seat of the former Mercantile Magistrate. It also documents the trade fairs and their significance for the trading city.

  • Bolzano School Museum, reports about the development of the school in South Tyrol since the introduction of the compulsory education of Empress Maria Theresia in the year 1774. Special features of this museum are, among other things, the presentation of the catacomb schools and the documentation about the Jewish school home near Merano.

  • Bolzano Cathedral Treasury, was founded in 2007 and has its seat near the Cathedral of Bolzano. The museum shows sacred art such as church treasures, 18th-century paintings and goldsmithing.

  • MMM Firmian, is one of six locations of the museum project of mountaineer Reinhold Messner. The MMM Firmian is located at Sigmundskron Castle and is also the headquarters of the project. Themes of this museum are the history of mountaineering and the art of mountaineering. It shows the connection between the people and the mountains. Additionally, Reinhold Messner's experiences, collections and memories of the expeditions will be exhibited.

  • Semi-rural House, was one of many houses built in the Semi-rural zone during the 1930s for industrial workers. It documents the development of this district at that time until the 1980s.

  • Documentation Center “BZ '18–'45: one monument, one city, two dictatorships”, Victory Monument. The museum is located below the Victory Monument and documents the time of the population of Bolzano and South Tyrol during the Italian fascism and after 1943 the German National Socialism. It is the first museum in Italy to work on the fascism under Benito Mussolini. In 2016, the Museum received a lot of recognition from the jury of the European Museum of the Year Award for exhibiting this sensitive topic.[40][41]

  • Pons Drusi Museum, located in the retirement home “Grieserhof” and showing archaeological remains such as frescoes and vases from Roman antiquity. The remaining walls indicate a former temple complex and a building with a pillared hall. Several objects from the first century AD were found, which showing the life of the Romans in Bolzano at that time.[42]

Libraries and Archives[edit]

Cinema and Theatre[edit]

 

New theatre Bolzano

  • Bolzano Theatre; the new city theater was opened in 1999 according to the plans of the architect Marco Zanuso. For a long time the city had no city theater, because the old one was destroyed in World War II. It is seat of the United Stages Bolzano (VBB) and has 2 halls. The theater features performances in Italian and German.

  • Concert Hall Bolzano, was also opened in 1999 and is the seat of the Haydn Orchestra of Bolzano and Trento. Every two years the famous Ferruccio Busoni International Piano Competition is held in the auditorium.

  • Haus der Kultur Walther von der Vogelweide (Culture house Walther von der Vogelweide), is a theater that presents a majority of performances in German. It is located in the center of the city and can accommodate about 500 people.

  • Teatro Cristallo, is located outside the center in Dalmatienstreet. Most of the performances are presented in Italian.

  • Stadttheater Gries (City theater Gries), located in the district of Gries-Quirein and can accommodate 371 people. Performances are presented in German and Italian.

  • Theater im Hof (Theatre in the courtyard), is located on Obstplatz and dedicated to the children and youth theater. An additional focus of the small theater is the topic of "women in and at the theater".

  • Carambolage; in this venue improvisational theater and other forms of cabaret are offered. It is located in the center of the city.

  • Batzen Sudwerk; below the 600-year-old brewery is a cultural workshop in the basement. There are offered often performances in the form of cabaret.

  • Teatro Cinema Rainerum; at the Rainerum Institute in the Don Bosco district there is a theater for about 400 people.

  • Filmclub Bolzano (Movie club Bolzano), is a cinema with 3 rooms and also shows several films of regional directors and actors. The Filmclub is also the venue of the Bolzano Filmfestival. The cinema is located in the old town of Bolzano.

  • Cineplexx, was opened in 2009 and offers a majority of films in German. In addition to films in German and Italian, other films are also available in English. The cinema has 7 rooms.

  • UCI Cinema, opened in 2015 and is located in the shopping center "Twenty". Most of the 6 halls offer films in Italian. Also in this cinema are occasionally shown films in English and German.

Cultural events[edit]

Bolzano organizes the following events every year:

  • Südtirol JazzFestival, is a festival that not only takes place in Bolzano but is also performed all over South Tyrol. The jazz festival lasts up to 10 days and performs 90 concerts in 50 different locations with over 150 jazz musicians. International jazz musicians such as Don CherryRandy BreckerCarla BleyChick CoreaPat Metheny, and Collin Walcott participated in this event.

  • Ferruccio Busoni International Piano Competition, is an international piano competition and is held every 2 years. This competition was initiated by the director of the Conservatory of Music "Claudio Monteverdi" in memory of the 25th anniversary of the death of Ferruccio Busoni. The artist influenced Italian and German music art and was therefore a symbol of the South Tyrolean culture.

  • Bolzano Filmfestival; The first Bolzano film festival was held in 1987 under the name "Bozner Filmtage". It serves as a platform for the local film scene and to create contact between filmmakers and audiences. Films in Italian and German are shown. Artists like Tobias MorettiFred ZinnemannHerbert AchternbuschMichele Placido, and Jiri Menzel participated in this event.

  • Bolzano Festival Bozen, is a festival that takes place every summer and offers classical music. The European Union Youth Orchestra, the Gustav Mahler Jugendorchester and the participants of the Ferruccio Busoni Competition are performing regularly.

  • Tanz Bozen - Bolzano Danza, is an international contemporary dance festival and is held every summer. It is a festival that shows different dance performances in different places of the city. It is organized by the Haydn Foundation of Bolzano and Trento.

  • Christmas market Bozen; The Bolzano Christmas Market was founded in 1990 as Italy's first Christmas market. The stands are located in different places of the old town. With over 1.2 million visitors (2005), the Bolzano Christmas Market is the most visited in Italy.

  • Bolzano ShortFilmFestival, also collaborates with the Bolzano Filmfestival and awards prizes for the best short films without words ("No Words"). Indedpently of the Bolzano Filmfestival it also awards prizes for the best Italian short film. The festival was held in 1968 for the first time.

Education[edit]

Free University of Bozen-Bolzano[edit]

 

Logo of the university

The Free University of Bozen-Bolzano was founded in 1997 and has its headquarters in the city of Bolzano. It offers trilingual courses in German, Italian and English. The unibz was the first trilingual university in Europe. Other university locations are in Brixen and Bruneck. Through the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino, the university also works closely together with the universities of Innsbruck and Trento. The University of Bolzano has the following five faculties:

  • Economics

  • Computer science

  • Design and arts

  • Science and technology

  • Education

State College of Health Professions "Claudiana"[edit]

The State College of Health Professions "Claudiana" was founded in 1993 and has since 2006 its headquarters next to the regional hospital of Bolzano outside the center. The college was named after the Regent of the Austrian County of TyrolClaudia de Medici. The college serves to train health professionals, such as nurses, midwives, technical medicine and rehabilitation specialists. Teaching is in Italian and German.

Conservatory "Claudio Monteverdi"[edit]

The conservatory "Claudio Monteverdi" is a college of music in Bolzano. The conservatory was founded in 1927 and has since been named after the former Italian composer Claudio Monteverdi. The rooms of the conservatory are located in the Dominican monastery. The Academy of Music gained international recognition through the biennial Ferruccio Busoni International Piano Competition.

Transport[edit]

 

Bolzano railway station

Bolzano is connected to the motorway network A22-E45[43] to Trento and Verona and to Innsbruck (Austria) and Munich (Germany). In Bolzano South there is a transport hub that connects the dual carriageway MeBo with the A22 motorway. The dual carriageway MeBo (Merano - Bolzano) was completed in 1997 to quickly connect the two metropolitan areas of South Tyrol, Merano and Bolzano, and to relieve the surrounding communities in the district of Burggrafenamt and the old former two-lane State street SS38 (Strada statale 38).

The city is also connected to the Italian railway systemBolzano railway station, opened in 1859, forms part of the Brenner railway (Verona–Innsbruck), which is part of the main railway route between Italy and Germany. The station is also a junction of two branch lines, to Merano and Mals. The station of Bolzano is served by Frecciargento trains of Trenitalia, Italo EVO of Nuovo Trasporto Viaggiatori (from August 2018) and EuroCity trains of ÖBB.

A two-line light rail network is planned to serve Bolzano, at a length of 7.2 km (4½ miles) with 17 stops, with a projected cost of €192 million.[44]

There is a 50-kilometre (30 mi) network of cycle paths, and about 30 percent of journeys in Bolzano are made by bicycle.[45]

Until summer 2015 there was a regular connection between Bolzano Airport (IATA: BZO) and Rome. In summer charter flights are offered to CagliariOlbiaLamezia Terme and Catania.

Since 1966 a cable car connects the centre of Bolzano with Oberbozen-Soprabolzano and the community of Ritten. In 2009 the Italian manufacturer Leitner replaced the old cable car with a new modern 3S system. Although the so-called "Rittner Seilbahn" primarily serves the tourist market, it also provides an important transit link for the residents of Renon.[46] The cable car system, which can carry up to 726 persons per hour, is the first tricable gondola lift in Italy.[47]

Ritten (Gemeinde)

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Ritten

(italienisch: Renon)

Wappen

 

Karte

 

Staat:Italien

Region:Trentino-Südtirol

Provinz:Bozen – Südtirol

Bezirksgemeinschaft:Salten-Schlern

Einwohner:
(VZ 2011/31.12.2019)7.643/7.966

Sprachgruppen:
(laut Volkszählung 2011)95,20 % deutsch
4,55 % italienisch
0,25 % ladinisch

Koordinaten46° 32′ N, 11° 28′ OKoordinaten: 46° 32′ N, 11° 28′ O |  | 

Meereshöhe:296–2170 m s.l.m. (Zentrum: 1154 m s.l.m.)

Fläche:111 km²

Dauersiedlungsraum: km²

Fraktionen:AtzwangGissmannKlobensteinLengmoosLengsteinMittelbergOberbozenOberinnSiffianSignatSillUnterinnWangen

Nachbargemeinden:BarbianBozenKastelruthKarneidVöls am SchlernJenesienSarntalVillanders

Partnerschaft mit:Kirchheimbolanden (Rheinland-Pfalz)

Postleitzahl:39054

Vorwahl:0471

ISTAT-Nummer:021072

Steuernummer:80008790216

Bürgermeister (2020):Paul Lintner (SVP)

Ritten (italienisch Renon) ist eine italienische Gemeinde mit 7966 Einwohnern (Stand 31. Dezember 2019) in Südtirol. Sie erstreckt sich über 111 km² und liegt größtenteils auf dem Ritten, einem weitläufigen Bergrücken im Südosten der Sarntaler Alpen. Die Gemeinde umfasst zahlreiche Ortschaften, der Hauptort ist Klobenstein.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Geografie[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

 

Blick auf die kleine Ortschaft Mittelberg

 

Blick über den Wolfsgrubner See in Wolfsgruben

Die Gemeinde Ritten nimmt den Großteil des gleichnamigen Bergrückens Ritten im Südosten der Sarntaler Alpen ein. Im Westen reicht das Gemeindegebiet im unteren Bereich des Sarntals, der Sarner Schlucht, bis an die Talfer hinab, im Osten, im ebenfalls schluchtartig ausgeformten unteren Eisacktal, bis an den Eisack. Im Süden verläuft die Grenze zur Südtiroler Landeshauptstadt Bozen quer über die dem Bozner Talkessel zugewandten Hänge. Im Norden endet Ritten im Gebiet um das Rittner Horn, das allerdings zu Barbian gehört.

Die größten Siedlungen der Gemeinde, mehrere Weiler und zahlreichen Gehöfte, liegen über die Rittner Mittelgebirgslandschaft verstreut. Die Mehrzahl der Ortschaften ist ostseitig zum Eisacktal hin orientiert: der Hauptort Klobenstein (1160 m), Lengmoos (1150 m), Lengstein (970 m), Mittelberg (1170 m), Siffian (990 m) und Unterinn (900 m). Im Südwesten, hoch über dem Bozner Talkessel, befinden sich Oberbozen (1220 m), Signat (850 m) und Wolfsgruben (1200 m). Im Nordwesten, dem Sarntal zugewandt, liegen Oberinn (1300 m), Wangen (1060 m) und Gissmann (1570 m), die höchstgelegene Siedlung der Gemeinde nahe dem Rittner Horn. Die tiefstgelegenen Fraktionen sind hingegen Atzwang (370 m) im Eisacktal und die Sill (350 m) im Sarntal.

Geschichte[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Das klimatisch günstig gelegene Gebiet war bereits in grauer Vorzeit reger Siedlungsaktivität ausgesetzt. So soll sich etwa der Stamm der Isarken im unteren Eisacktal aufgehalten haben. Die archäologischen Funde sind zahlreich. Prähistorische Wallburgen standen etwa auf dem Wangener Langegg, auf dem Klobensteiner Piperbühel, in Lengmoos als auch auf dem Lengsteiner Hexenbödele. Die Menhire auf Wolfsgruben (Roarer Windspiel) sind mit astronomischen Angaben versehen und ähneln jenem, den man in Lajen fand.[1]

Der Ritten ist erstmals 871–875 als Mons Ritanus urkundlich erwähnt und erscheint im Jahr 1027 als Ausstellungsort Mons Rittena einer kaiserlichen Verfügung des Saliers Konrad II.[2] Bereits um 1200 wurde – dank der Lage am alten Kaiserweg – in der Ortschaft Lengmoos ein Hospiz gegründet und dem Deutschen Orden übergeben. In einem Bozner Schiedsspruch von 1434 tritt die Rittner Landgemeinde („lewtte vnd gemainschaft ab dem Ritten“) als rechtsfähige und eigenständig handelnde Gemeinschaft in Erscheinung.[3] Als Gerichtssitz diente lange die Burg Stein am Ritten.

Im 17. Jahrhundert wurde der Ritten von wohlhabenden Bozner Bürgern für die Sommerfrische entdeckt, da es auf der Hochfläche wesentlich kühler als in der besonders heißen Landeshauptstadt ist. Zahlreiche Patrizierhäuser wurden vor allem in Maria Himmelfahrt, einem Ortsteil von Oberbozen, errichtet.

1907 wurde der Ritten durch die Rittner Bahn von Bozen aus erschlossen. Ihren heutigen Umfang erlangte die Gemeinde 1928, als das bis dato eigenständige Wangen eingegliedert wurde. In den 1960er Jahren setzte der wirtschaftliche Aufschwung eine erhebliche Bautätigkeit in Gang, alle Ortschaften der Gemeinde Ritten wurden durch ein Straßennetz untereinander und mittels einer nach Plänen von Ing. Hans Minarik gebauten, 1971 eröffneten Verbindungsstrecke mit Bozen verknüpft. In Nachfolge der früheren Rittner Seilbahn verbindet seit 2009 eine neue Kabinen-Umlaufbahn Bozen mit Oberbozen.

Kultur und Sehenswürdigkeiten[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Siehe auch: Liste der Baudenkmäler in Ritten und Liste der Naturdenkmäler in Ritten

Weiters gibt es auf dem Ritten das Haus der Familie. In der dazugehörigen Kirche von Lichtenstern waren bis zur Seligsprechung 2017 die Überreste Josef Mayr-Nussers begraben. Die Kirche wurde in den Jahren 2013–2017 modernisiert.[4]

Das Schloss Runkelstein befindet sich auf Rittner Gebiet, am Fuße des Ritten nahe der Talsohle beim Ausgang des Sarntals. In der Kommende Lengmoos finden jedes Jahr die Rittner Sommerspiele und verschiedene Konzerte und Ausstellungen statt.

Politik[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Bürgermeister seit 1952:[5]

  • Anton Plattner: 1952–1960

  • Johann Pichler: 1960–1974

  • Bruno Hosp: 1974–1984

  • Ferdinand Rottensteiner: 1984–2010

  • Paul Lintner: seit 2010

 

Hofer-Hof in Mittelberg gegen den Schlern

Wirtschaft[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Der Ritten ist landwirtschaftlich geprägt. Landwirtschaft, Tourismus und das Handwerk bilden die Haupteinnahmequellen der Gemeinde. Ein Teil der Bevölkerung pendelt in das nahegelegene Bozen zur Arbeit aus.

Die größten Betriebe auf dem Ritten sind Loacker und Finstral.

Bildung[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

In der Gemeinde gibt es öffentliche Bildungseinrichtungen für die deutsche Sprachgruppe. Zu diesen gehören Grundschulen in LengmoosLengsteinOberbozenOberinnUnterinn und Wangen, sowie die nach Hans von Hoffensthal benannte Mittelschule im Hauptort Klobenstein.

Persönlichkeiten[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

  • Peter Mayr (1767–1810), Tiroler Freiheitskämpfer

  • Hans von Hoffensthal (1877–1914), Bozner Arzt und Schriftsteller

  • Otto Flake (1880–1963), deutscher Schriftsteller, der in der Zeit nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg am Ritten lebte

  • Bronisław Malinowski (1884–1942), britisch-polnischer Anthropologe, der in den 1920er-Jahren mit seiner Familie mehrere Sommer in Oberbozen verbrachte (s. Gedenktafel am dortigen Malinowski-Haus)

  • Robert Scheuch (1896–1974), österreichischer Politiker

  • Karl Hermann Vigl (1939–2021), Chorleiter, Kapellmeister, Leiter der Fachgruppe Musik im Südtiroler Künstlerbund, Komponist und Publizist

  • Bruno Platter (* 1944), 65. Hochmeister des Deutschen Ordens

  • Robert Peroni (* 1944), Extremsportler, Bergsteiger und Autor

Ritten

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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"Renon" redirects here. For the character in Castlevania, see Castlevania (Nintendo 64 game).

Ritten

Comune

Gemeinde Ritten
Comune di Renon

 

The village of Unterinn in Ritten

 

Coat of arms

show

Location of Ritten

 

Ritten

Location of Ritten in Italy

Show map of ItalyShow map of Trentino-Alto Adige/SüdtirolShow all

Coordinates: 46°32′N 11°27′ECoordinates46°32′N 11°27′E

CountryItaly

RegionTrentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol

ProvinceSouth Tyrol (BZ)

FrazioniOberinn (Auna di Sopra), Unterinn (Auna di Sotto), Atzwang (Campodazzo), Klobenstein (Collalbo), Lengmoos (Longomoso), Lengstein (Longostagno), Gissmann (Madonnina), Mittelberg (Monte di Mezzo), Rotwand (Pietrarossa), Oberbozen (Soprabolzano), Signat (Signato), Sill, Wangen (Vanga)

Government

 • MayorPaul Lintner

Area

[2]

 • Total111 km2 (43 sq mi)

Elevation1,154 m (3,786 ft)

Population

 (Aug. 2018)[3]

 • Total7.925 [1]

Demonym(s)German: Rittner
Italian: renonesi

Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)

 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)

Postal code

39054

Dialing code0471

WebsiteOfficial website

Ritten (German pronunciation: [ˈrɪtn̩]Italian: Renon [reˈnon]) is a comune (municipality) in South Tyrol in northern Italy.

Contents

Territory[edit]

The 111-square-kilometre (43 sq mi) community is named after the high plateau, elevation 1,100 to 1,400 metres (3,600 to 4,600 ft), the Ritten or the Renon, on which most of the villages are located. The plateau forms the southeast tip of the Sarntal Alps mountain range and is located between, and on average 800 metres (2,600 ft) above the rivers Eisack and Talfer. Ritten lies directly northeast of Bolzano, settled on the "meeting point" of the above rivers.

Ritten borders the following municipalities: BarbianBolzanoKastelruthKarneidVölsJenesienSarntal and Villanders.

As of 31 December 2016, Ritten had a population of 7,847.[4]

There are 17 fraziones (subdivisions, usually consisting of one or a few villages and hamlets). These include the central village Klobenstein (Collalbo), in which the townhall is located, as well as Atzwang (Campodazzo), Gissmann (Madonnina), Lengmoos (Longomoso), Lengstein (Longostagno), Mittelberg (Monte di Mezzo), Oberbozen (Soprabolzano), Oberinn (Auna di Sopra), Rotwand (Pietrarossa), Siffian (Siffiano), Signat (Signato), Sill (Castel Novale), Unterinn (Auna di Sotto), Wangen (Vanga), and Wolfsgruben (Costalovara).

Of these only Atzwang and Sill are not located on the plateau, but on the rivers Eisack and Talfer, respectively.

History[edit]

 

Earth pyramids in Ritten

The mountain ridge is first mentioned in AD 871–75 as "Mons Ritanus" and then in 1027 as "Mons Rittena".[5] Already around 1200 a mountain inn was established on the plateau. In 1237 Runkelstein Castle was built on a rocky spur in Ritten territory by the lords of Wangen.

The Tyrolean patriotic hero Peter Mayr (1767–1810), involved in the rebellion against Napoleon's forces that occupied Tyrol, was born in the village of Siffian in Ritten.

From the 17th century Ritten has been a popular summer destination for citizens of Bolzano, since the air is considerably cooler on the plateau. Ritten is connected with Bolzano with a provincial road and with a cableway from Oberbozen, one of the longest cableways of the world in one track, about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long and 12 minutes to travel. This cableway replaced in 1960 the previous rack railway, built in 1907. The railway is still in function on the mountain side between Maria Himmelfahrt and Klobenstein.

Coat of arms[edit]

The official community coat of arms consists of gules two chevrons embowed argent; it is the arms of the Lords of Zwingenstein who ruled the village from their castle until 1531. The emblem was adopted in 1967.[6]

Main sights[edit]

Economy[edit]

The candy company Loacker is based in Ritten.

Notable people[edit]

Society[edit]

Linguistic distribution[edit]

According to the 2011 census, 95.20% of the population speak German, 4.55% Italian and 0.25% Ladin as first language.[7]

Demographic evolution[edit]

 

Location of Ritten within South Tyrol

References

Südtirol

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Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Südtirol (Begriffsklärung) aufgeführt.

Autonome Provinz Bozen – Südtirol
Provincia autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige
Provinzia Autonoma de Balsan/Bulsan – Südtirol

 

 

Staat:Italien

RegionTrentino-Südtirol

Hauptstadt:Bozen

Fläche:7.400,43 km²

Einwohner:532.080 (31. Dez. 2019)[1]

Sprachgruppen:deutsch (62,3 %),
italienisch (23,4 %),
ladinisch (4,1 %),
andere (10,2 %)
(Stand: Volkszählung 2011)[2]

Bevölkerungsdichte:71,9 Einwohner/km²

Anzahl Gemeinden:116

Kfz-Kennzeichen:BZ

ISO-3166-2-Kennung:IT-BZ

Landeshauptmann:Arno Kompatscher (SVP)

Website:https://www.provinz.bz.it/de/

 

Südtirol (italienisch Alto Adige, Sudtirolo; ladinisch Südtirol), amtlich Autonome Provinz Bozen – Südtirol, ist die nördlichste Provinz Italiens und bildet zusammen mit der Provinz Trient die autonome Region Trentino-Südtirol. Seit Inkrafttreten der erweiterten Autonomie im Jahr 1972 genießt Südtirol umfassende Selbstverwaltungsrechte und wird entsprechend als „autonome Provinz“ oder „Land“ bezeichnet. Das mitten in den Alpen gelegene Gebiet hat rund 530.000 Einwohner, seine Landeshauptstadt ist Bozen.

Südtirol zählt zu jenen Gebieten Italiens mit einer starken Regionalkultur. Diese ist auf die bairische und alpenromanische Besiedlung sowie auf die historisch gewachsenen Bindungen an den deutschen Sprach- und Kulturraum zurückzuführen. Insbesondere mit dem nördlichen Nachbarland Österreich verbindet Südtirol eine gemeinsame Geschichte. Bis zur Auflösung der Doppelmonarchie Österreich-Ungarn im Jahr 1918, darüber hinaus völkerrechtlich noch bis 1920, gehörte Südtirol Österreich an. Die europäische Einigungsbewegung ermöglicht bis heute eine grenzüberschreitende Zusammenarbeit mit den anderen Teilen der historischen Region Tirol, die seit Gründung der Europaregion Tirol–Südtirol–Trentino am Beginn einer institutionellen Verflechtung steht.

Hinsichtlich der sprachlich-kulturellen Differenzierung setzt sich die Bevölkerung gegenwärtig zu über 62 % aus deutschsprachigen und zu etwa 23 % aus italienischsprachigen Südtirolern zusammen. Rund 4 % der Einwohner, hauptsächlich im Dolomitengebiet, gehören zur ladinischen Sprachgruppe. Inner- und außereuropäische Migration hat insbesondere seit den 1990er Jahren zu einer weiteren Diversifizierung der Bevölkerungszusammensetzung geführt.

Das in weiten Teilen ländliche Südtirol zählt zu den wohlhabendsten Gebieten Italiens und der Europäischen Union. Wirtschaftlich war das an der Brenner-Transitroute gelegene Land lange Zeit in erster Linie agrarisch geprägt. Seit der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts spielen Dienstleistungsbereiche wie Handel, Verkehr und Tourismus eine herausragende Rolle.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Lage[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

 

Südtirol (hier das Unterland) verbindet über die Brenner-Transitroute Nord und Süd.

 

Der Alpenhauptkamm (hier im Bereich des Pfossentals) bildet die Nordgrenze Südtirols.

Südtirol befindet sich zur Gänze in den Alpen. Das Land ist sowohl die nördlichste als auch mit einer Gesamtfläche von 7400 km² eine der größten Provinzen Italiens. Durchzogen wird es in Nord-Süd-Richtung von der bedeutenden Brenner-Transitroute, die Deutschland und Österreich mit Oberitalien verbindet. Die nächstgelegenen Millionenstädte sind München etwa 180 km nördlich von Bozen und Mailand etwa 200 km südwestlich.

Südtirol liegt sowohl an der italienisch-österreichischen als auch an der italienisch-schweizerischen Grenze. Im Norden und Osten trifft Südtirol auf die österreichischen Bundesländer Tirol (NordtirolOsttirol) und – an einem kleinen Teilstück – Salzburg. Die Nordgrenze orientiert sich dabei seit der Teilung Tirols nach dem Ende des Ersten Weltkriegs größtenteils am Alpenhauptkamm. Im Westen stößt Südtirol an den Schweizer Kanton Graubünden. Innerhalb Italiens ist es im Südwesten von der lombardischen Provinz Sondrio, im Süden vom Trentino und im Südosten von der zu Venetien gehörenden Provinz Belluno umgeben.

Bundesland Tirol (Österreich)
Landesteil NordtirolBundesland Salzburg (Österreich)

Kanton Graubünden (Schweiz)Bundesland Tirol (Österreich)
Landesteil Osttirol

Lombardei
Provinz SondrioTrentinoVenetien
Provinz Belluno

Namens- und Begriffsgeschichte[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

 

Landkarte The Valleys of Tirol aus dem Jahr 1874, in der in etwa das heutige Südtirol und Osttirol als South Tirol bezeichnet werden; der italienischsprachige Landesteil scheint als Wälsch- or Italian Tirol or the Trentino auf.

 

Gleichbedeutende Verwendung von Deutsch-Südtirol und Südtirol im „Maiser Wochenblatt“ (1907)

„Südtirol“ als Bezeichnung einer politischen Verwaltungseinheit: Ein vom größeren Tiroler Gesamtzusammenhang politisch und juridisch abgegrenztes Südtirol gibt es erst als unmittelbare Folge des Ersten Weltkriegs: War Tirol bis dahin ein geschlossener Teil von Österreich-Ungarn gewesen, so wurden das heutige Südtirol und das Trentino (ehemals Welschtirol) mit dem Friedensvertrag von 1919 Italien zugesprochen. Die faschistische Administration gründete im Jänner 1927 die mehrheitlich deutschsprachige Provinz Bozen.[3] Diese erlangte mit dem Ersten Autonomiestatut von 1948 ihren heutigen geographischen Umfang, wurde allerdings amtlich noch als Tiroler Etschland bezeichnet. Die für dieses Gebiet seit den 1920er Jahren allgemein übliche Bezeichnung Südtirol wurde mit dem Zweiten Autonomiestatut von 1972 erstmals offiziell anerkannt. Seither verwendet die Landesverwaltung als Eigenbezeichnung die Langform Autonome Provinz Bozen – Südtirol bzw. die Kurzform Land Südtirol. Das italienische Äquivalent hierzu lautet Provincia autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige, das ladinische Provinzia Autonoma de Balsan – Südtirol (auf Gadertalisch) oder Provinzia Autonoma de Bulsan – Südtirol (auf Grödnerisch).

„Südtirol“ als topographische Bezeichnung: Der Name „Südtirol“ bzw. seine Entsprechungen in anderen Sprachen (South Tyrol oder Tirol im Englischen, Tyrol du Sud im Französischen) fanden bereits im 19. Jahrhundert Verbreitung, konnten sich jedoch auf verschiedene südliche Gebiete der Grafschaft Tirol beziehen, die das moderne Südtirol auch nur teilweise oder überhaupt nicht einschlossen. Im weitesten Sinne wurden mit „Südtirol“ alle Tiroler Gebiete südlich des Alpenhauptkamms bezeichnet, die auf der Grundlage der sprachlichen Mehrheitsverhältnisse weiter in „Deutsch-Südtirol“ und „Welsch-Südtirol“ (oder „Welschtirol“) unterteilt wurden. Nach der Annexion des Südteils Tirols durch Italien vollzog sich in den 1920er Jahren ein Bedeutungswandel, durch den „Südtirol“ zum Synonym für die hauptsächlich deutschsprachig besiedelte „Provinz Bozen“ aufrückte.[4]

Entstehung und Verwendung der italienischen Bezeichnungen „Alto Adige“ und „Sudtirolo“: Die italienische Bezeichnung Alto Adige (zu Deutsch „Oberetsch“ oder „Hochetsch“[A 1]) für die deutschsprachigen Teile Tirols südlich der Wasserscheide wurde zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts im Zuge des Irredentismus geprägt und verbreitet. Man bediente sich dabei des Namens des Département Haut-Adige (Dipartimento dell’Alto Adige) im napoleonischen Königreich Italien, das von 1810 bis 1813 bestand und größtenteils das heutige Trentino sowie einige angrenzende Gebiete, darunter auch den Südteil des heutigen Südtirols mit der Stadt Bozen, umfasste. In der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts entstand die italienische Alternativbezeichnung Sudtirolo, die zunehmende Verbreitung findet.[5]

Physische Geographie[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Geologie[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Quer durch Südtirol verläuft grob in Südwest-Nordost-Richtung die Periadriatische Naht, die die Südalpen von den Zentralalpen trennt. In Südtirol treten zumindest drei der vier Hauptbauelemente der Alpen zutage: Das Südalpin kommt südlich der Periadriatischen Naht zum Vorschein, das Ostalpin nördlich davon und im nördlichen Landesteil östlich des Brenners das Tauernfenster, in dem das Penninikum und nach Angaben einiger Autoren auch das Helvetikum sichtbar werden.[6]

Im Südalpin lässt sich in Südtirol in groben Zügen folgender Aufbau erkennen: Das unterste Stockwerk bildet das kristalline Grundgebirge. Vor etwa 280 Millionen Jahren, im unteren Perm, kam es zu mehrfachen magmatischen Ereignissen. An der nördlichen Grenze des Südalpins entstand damals der Brixner Granit, etwa zeitgleich kam es weiter südlich, im Großraum Bozen, zu starker vulkanischer Aktivität, die den Etschtaler Vulkanit-Komplex ausformte. Im Oberen Perm setzte eine Periode ein, in der Sedimentgesteine gebildet wurden. Zu Beginn waren es teilweise klastische Sedimente, wozu etwa der Grödner Sandstein zählt. In der Trias entstanden dann mächtige Karbonatplattformen aus Dolomitgestein; dieser Vorgang wurde in der mittleren Trias von einer kurzen, aber heftigen vulkanischen Aktivitätsphase unterbrochen.[7]

Das Ostalpin besteht in Südtirol vorwiegend aus metamorphem Gestein wie Gneisen oder Glimmerschiefern mit vereinzelten Marmoreinlagerungen (siehe auch Laaser Marmor) und metamorph überprägten mesozoischen Sedimentgesteinen (etwa am Ortler oder südwestlich des Brenners).[6] Im Tauernfenster kommen verschiedene metamorphe Gesteine zum Vorschein, u. a. Hochstegenmarmor (etwa am Wolfendorn),[8] Grünschiefer (etwa am Hochfeiler) oder Gesteine des Zentralgneises (überwiegend im Bereich des Zillertaler Hauptkamms).[9]

Das Land Südtirol hat zahlreiche geologische Naturdenkmäler unter Schutz gestellt. Zu den bekanntesten zählen die Bletterbachschlucht, ein 12 km langer Canyon in der Gemeinde Aldein, und die Rittner Erdpyramiden, die mit einer Höhe von bis zu 30 m die größten Europas sind.[10]

Klima[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

In Südtirol herrscht ein Kontinentalklima mit markanten jahreszeitlichen Schwankungen vor, das in tieferen Lagen eine relativ milde Ausprägung annimmt. Aufgrund seiner inneralpinen, durch Gebirgsketten abgeschirmten Lage ist das Land vor nördlichen Kälteströmungen und Feuchtluftmassen aus dem Mittelmeerraum einigermaßen geschützt. Dementsprechend haben bestimmende Wetterwirkungen Mitteleuropas nur einen abgeschwächten Einfluss, und Südtirol ist auch deutlich niederschlagsärmer als die umliegenden Gebiete. Die relative Sonnenscheindauer in Südtirol ist mit 55–60 % beachtlich hoch. Die Winde wehen im Frühling und Herbst am stärksten, die oftmals Inversionswetterlagen mit sich bringenden Winter sind meist windstill, die Sommer vielerorts von Berg- und Talwind-Zirkulation gekennzeichnet. Die klimatischen und Witterungsbedingungen variieren jedoch je nach Landesteil, Exposition und Höhenlage beträchtlich (so können Weinbau und Gletschergebiete fallweise nur durch wenige Kilometer Distanz voneinander getrennt sein). Generell sind der Norden und Osten des Landes vergleichsweise rauer als der mildere Süden und Westen.[11]

South Tyrol

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This article is about the Italian administrative division. For other uses, see South Tyrol (disambiguation).

"Alto Adige" redirects here. For other uses, see Alto Adige (disambiguation).

Autonomous Province of Bolzano – South Tyrol

German: Autonome Provinz Bozen – Südtirol
Italian: Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige
Ladin: Provinzia Autonoma de Balsan/Bulsan – Südtirol

Autonomous province

 

Flag

 

Coat of arms

 

Map highlighting the location of the province of South Tyrol in Italy (in red)

Country Italy

RegionTrentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol

Capital(s)Bolzano

Comuni116

Government

 • BodyLandtag

 • GovernorArno Kompatscher (SVP)

Area

 • Total7,399.97 km2 (2,857.14 sq mi)

Population

 (1 January 2019)

 • Total531,178

 • Density72/km2 (190/sq mi)

Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)

 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)

Postal code

39XXX

Telephone prefix0471, 0472, 0473, 0474

Vehicle registrationBZ

GDP (nominal)€24.8 billion (2018)[1]

GDP per capita€47,100 (2018)[2]

HDI (2019)0.910[3]
very high · 5th of 21

ISTAT021

Websitewww.provincia.bz.it

South Tyrol (German: Südtirol; Italian: Alto Adige; Ladin: Südtirol) is an autonomous province in northern Italy, one of the two that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[4] The province is the northernmost of Italy, the second largest, with an area of 7,400 square kilometres (2,857 sq mi) and has a total population of about 534,000 inhabitants as of 2021.[5] Its capital and largest city is Bolzano (German: Bozen; Ladin: Balsan or Bulsan).

 

The Atlas Tyrolensis, showing the entire County of Tyrol, printed in Vienna. 1774

According to the 2011 census, 62.3% of the population uses German as their first language (Standard German in the written form and an Austro-Bavarian dialect in the spoken form); 23.4% of the population speaks Italian, mainly in and around the two largest cities (Bolzano, with an Italian-speaking majority, and Meran, with a slight majority German-speaking); 4.1% speaks Ladin, a Rhaeto-Romance language; 10.2% of the population (mainly recent immigrants) speaks another language natively. Of 116 South Tyrolean municipalities, 103 have a German speaking, eight a Ladin speaking, and five an Italian speaking majority.[6] There was large-scale immigration of Italians from the rest of Italy to Bolzano and its surroundings after 1918.[7][8]

The province is granted a considerable level of self-government, consisting of a large range of exclusive legislative and executive powers and a fiscal regime that allows it to retain 90% of revenue, while remaining a net contributor to the national budget.[9] As of 2016, South Tyrol is the wealthiest province in Italy and among the wealthiest in the European Union.

In the wider context of the European Union, the province is one of the three members of the Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino Euroregion, which corresponds almost exactly to the historical region of Tyrol.[10] The other members are Tyrol state in Austria, to the north and east, and the Italian Autonomous province of Trento to the south.

Contents

Name[edit]

 

A map from 1874 showing South Tirol with approximately the borders of today's South and East Tyrol

South Tyrol (occasionally South Tirol) is the term most commonly used in English for the province,[11] and its usage reflects that it was created from a portion of the southern part of the historic County of Tyrol, a former state of the Holy Roman Empire and crown land of the Austrian Empire of the Habsburgs. German and Ladin speakers usually refer to the area as Südtirol; the Italian equivalent Sudtirolo (sometimes parsed Sud Tirolo[12]) is becoming increasingly common.[13]

Alto Adige (literally translated in English: "Upper Adige"), one of the Italian names for the province, is also used in English.[14] The term had been the name of political subdivisions along the Adige River in the time of Napoleon Bonaparte,[15][16] who created the Department of Alto Adige, part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. It was reused as the Italian name of the current province after its post-World War I creation, and was a symbol of the subsequent forced Italianization of South Tyrol.[17]

The official name of the province today in German is Autonome Provinz Bozen — Südtirol. German speakers usually refer to it not as a Provinz, but as a Land (like the Länder of Germany and Austria).[18] Provincial institutions are referred to using the prefix Landes-, such as Landesregierung (state government) and Landeshauptmann (governor).[19] The official name in Italian is Provincia autonoma di Bolzano — Alto Adige, in Ladin Provinzia autonoma de Balsan/Bulsan — Südtirol.

History[edit]

Main article: History of South Tyrol

Annexation by Italy[edit]

South Tyrol as an administrative entity originated during the First World War. The Allies promised the area to Italy in the Treaty of London of 1915 as an incentive to enter the war on their side. Until 1918 it was part of the Austro-Hungarian princely County of Tyrol, but this almost completely German-speaking territory was occupied by Italy at the end of the war in November 1918 and was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1919. The province as it exists today was created in 1926 after an administrative reorganization of the Kingdom of Italy, and was incorporated together with the province of Trento into the newly created region of Venezia Tridentina ("Trentine Venetia").

With the rise of Italian Fascism, the new regime made efforts to bring forward the Italianization of South Tyrol. The German language was banished from public service, German teaching was officially forbidden, and German newspapers were censored (with the exception of the fascistic Alpenzeitung). The regime also favoured immigration from other Italian regions.

Main article: South Tyrol Option Agreement

The subsequent alliance between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini declared that South Tyrol would not follow the destiny of Austria, which had been annexed by Nazi Germany. Instead the dictators agreed that the German-speaking population be transferred to German-ruled territory or dispersed around Italy, but the outbreak of the Second World War prevented them from fully carrying out their intention.[20] Every single citizen had the free choice to give up his German cultural identity and stay in fascist Italy, or to leave his homeland and move to Nazi Germany to retain his cultural identity. The result was that in the difficult times of fascism, the individual South Tyrolean families were divided and separated.

In this tense relationship for the population, Walter Caldonazzi from Mals was part of the resistance group around the priest Heinrich Maier, which passed plans and information about production facilities for V-1 rocketsV-2 rocketsTiger tanksMesserschmitt Bf 109, and Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet and other aircraft to the Allies. For after the war, the group planned an independent Austria with a monarchical form of government, which would include Austria, Bavaria and South Tyrol.[21][22]

In 1943, when the Italian government signed an armistice with the Allies, the region was occupied by Germany, which reorganised it as the Operation Zone of the Alpine Foothills and put it under the administration of Gauleiter Franz Hofer. The region was de facto annexed to the German Reich (with the addition of the province of Belluno) until the end of the war. This status ended along with the Nazi regime, and Italian rule was restored in 1945.

Gruber-De Gasperi Agreement[edit]

 

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Austrians demonstrating in 1946 at a peace conference in favour of having the southern Tyrol region returned to Austria

After the war the Allies decided that the province would remain a part of Italy, under the condition that the German-speaking population be granted a significant level of self-government. Italy and Austria negotiated an agreement in 1946, recognizing the rights of the German minority. Alcide De Gasperi, Italy's prime minister, a native of Trentino, wanted to extend the autonomy to his fellow citizens. This led to the creation of the region called Trentino-Alto Adige/Tiroler Etschland. The Gruber-De Gasperi Agreement of September 1946 was signed by the Italian and Austrian Foreign Ministers, creating the autonomous region of Trentino-South Tyrol, consisting of the autonomous provinces of Trentino and South Tyrol. German and Italian were both made official languages, and German-language education was permitted once more. Still Italians were the majority in the combined region.

This, together with the arrival of new Italian-speaking immigrants, led to strong dissatisfaction among South Tyroleans, which culminated in terrorist acts perpetrated by the Befreiungsausschuss Südtirol (BAS – Committee for the Liberation of South Tyrol). In a first phase, only public edifices and fascist monuments were targeted. The second phase was bloodier, costing 21 lives (15 members of Italian security forces, two civilians, and four terrorists).

Südtirolfrage[edit]

 

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The South Tyrolean Question (Südtirolfrage) became an international issue. As the implementation of the post-war agreement was deemed unsatisfactory by the Austrian government, it became a cause of significant friction with Italy and was taken up by the United Nations in 1960. A fresh round of negotiations took place in 1961 but proved unsuccessful, partly because of the campaign of terrorism.

The issue was resolved in 1971, when a new Austro-Italian treaty was signed and ratified. It stipulated that disputes in South Tyrol would be submitted for settlement to the International Court of Justice in The Hague, that the province would receive greater autonomy within Italy, and that Austria would not interfere in South Tyrol's internal affairs. The new agreement proved broadly satisfactory to the parties involved, and the separatist tensions soon eased.

The autonomous status granted in 1972 has resulted in a considerable level of self-government,[23] also due to the large financial resources of South Tyrol, allows the entity to retain almost 90% of all levied taxes.[24]

Autonomy[edit]

 

Plaque at a German-language school in both Italian and German

In 1992, Italy and Austria officially ended their dispute over the autonomy issue on the basis of the agreement of 1972.[25]

The extensive self-government[23] provided by the current institutional framework has been advanced as a model for settling interethnic disputes and for the successful protection of linguistic minorities.[26] This is among the reasons why the Ladin municipalities of Cortina d'Ampezzo/Anpezo, Livinallongo del Col di Lana/Fodom and Colle Santa Lucia/Col have asked in a referendum to be detached from Veneto and reannexed to the province, from which they were separated under the fascist government.[27]

Euroregion[edit]

The Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino corresponds to the historic Tyrol region today (excluding Cortina and Livinallongo)

   North and East Tyrol (Austria)

   South Tyrol (Italy)

   Trentino (Italy)

In 1996, the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino was formed between the Austrian state of Tyrol and the Italian provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino. The boundaries of the association correspond to the old County of Tyrol. The aim is to promote regional peace, understanding and cooperation in many areas. The region's assemblies meet together as one on various occasions, and have set up a common liaison office with the European Union in Brussels.

Geography[edit]

 

Detailed map of South Tyrol

South Tyrol is located at the northernmost point in Italy. The province is bordered by Austria to the east and north, specifically by the Austrian federal-states Tyrol and Salzburg, and by the Swiss canton of Graubünden to the west. The Italian provinces of BellunoTrentino, and Sondrio border to the southeast, south, and southwest, respectively.

The landscape itself is mostly cultivated with different types of shrubs and forests and is highly mountainous.

Entirely located in the Alps, the province's landscape is dominated by mountains. The highest peak is the Ortler (3,905 metres, 12,812 ft) in the far west, which is also the highest peak in the Eastern Alps outside the Bernina Range. Even more famous are the craggy peaks of the Dolomites in the eastern part of the region.

The following mountain groups are (partially) in South Tyrol. All but the Sarntal Alps are on the border with Austria, Switzerland, or other Italian provinces. The ranges are clockwise from the west and for each the highest peak is given that is within the province or on its border.

 

Ulten Valley

NameHighest peak (German/Italian)metresfeet

Ortler AlpsOrtler/Ortles3,90512,811

Sesvenna RangeMuntpitschen/Monpiccio3,16210,374

Ötztal AlpsWeißkugel/Palla Bianca3,74612,291

Stubai AlpsWilder Freiger/Cima Libera3,42611,241

Sarntal AlpsHirzer/Punta Cervina2,7819,124

Zillertal AlpsHochfeiler/Gran Pilastro3,51011,515

Hohe TauernDreiherrnspitze/Picco dei Tre Signori3,49911,480

Eastern DolomitesDreischusterspitze/Punta Tre Scarperi3,15210,341

Western DolomitesLangkofel/Sassolungo3,18110,436

Located between the mountains are many valleys, where the majority of the population lives.

Administrative divisions[edit]

See also: Municipalities of South Tyrol

The province is divided into eight districts (German: Bezirksgemeinschaften, Italian: comunità comprensoriali), one of them being the chief city of Bolzano. Each district is headed by a president and two bodies called the district committee and the district council. The districts are responsible for resolving intermunicipal disputes and providing roads, schools, and social services such as retirement homes.

The province is further divided into 116 Gemeinden or comuni.[28]

Districts[edit]

See also: Districts of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol

 

Map of South Tyrol with its eight districts

District (German/Italian)Capital (German/Italian)AreaInhabitants[28]

Bozen/BolzanoBozen/Bolzano52 km2107,436

Burggrafenamt/BurgraviatoMeran/Merano1,101 km297,315

Pustertal/Val PusteriaBruneck/Brunico 2,071 km279,086

Überetsch-Unterland/Oltradige-Bassa AtesinaNeumarkt/Egna424 km271,435

Eisacktal/Valle IsarcoBrixen/Bressanone624 km249,840

Salten-Schlern/Salto-SciliarBozen/Bolzano1,037 km248,020

Vinschgau/Val VenostaSchlanders/Silandro1,442 km235,000

Wipptal/Alta Valle IsarcoSterzing/Vipiteno650 km218,220

Largest municipalities[edit]

 

The Laubengasse or Via dei portici, a street in the capital Bolzano

 

Brixen is the third largest city

German nameItalian nameLadin nameInhabitants[28]

BozenBolzanoBalsan, Bulsan107,724

MeranMeranoMaran40,926

BrixenBressanonePersenon, Porsenù22,423

LeifersLaives18,097

BruneckBrunicoBornech, Burnech16,636

Eppan an der WeinstraßeAppiano sulla Strada del Vino14,990

LanaLana12,468

Kaltern an der WeinstraßeCaldaro sulla Strada del Vino7,512

RittenRenon7,507

SarntalSarentino6,863

KastelruthCastelrottoCiastel6,456

SterzingVipiteno6,306

SchlandersSilandro6,014

AhrntalValle Aurina5,876

NaturnsNaturno5,440

Sand in TaufersCampo Tures5,230

LatschLaces5,145

KlausenChiusaTluses, Tlüses5,134

MalsMalles5,050

NeumarktEgna4,926

AlgundLagundo4,782

St. UlrichOrtiseiUrtijëi4,606

RatschingsRacines4,331

TerlanTerlano4,132

Climate[edit]

 

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Climatically, South Tyrol may be divided into five distinct groups:

The Adige valley area, with cold winters (24-hour averages in January of about 0 °C (32 °F)) and warm summers (24-hour averages in July of about 23 °C (73 °F)), usually classified as humid subtropical climate — Cfa. It has the driest and sunniest climate of the province. The main city in this area is Bolzano.

The midlands, between 300 and 900 metres (980 and 2,950 ft), with cold winters (24-hour averages in January between −3 and 1 °C (27 and 34 °F)) and mild summers (24-hour averages in July between 15 and 21 °C (59 and 70 °F)). This is a typical oceanic climate, classified as Cfb. It is usually wetter than the subtropical climate, and very snowy during the winters. During the spring and autumn, there is a large foggy season, but fog may occur even on summer mornings. Main towns in this area are MeranBruneckSterzing, and Brixen. Near the lakes in higher lands (between 1,000 and 1,400 metres (3,300 and 4,600 ft)) the humidity may make the climate in these regions milder during winter, but also cooler in summer, then, a subpolar oceanic climate, Cfc, may occur.

 

Meran/Merano in the summer

The alpine valleys between 900 and 1,400 metres (3,000 and 4,600 ft), with a typically humid continental climate — Dfb, covering the largest part of the province. The winters are usually very cold (24-hour averages in January between −8 and −3 °C (18 and 27 °F)), and the summers, mild with averages between 14 and 19 °C (57 and 66 °F). It is a very snowy climate; snow may occur from early October to April or even May. Main municipalities in this area are UrtijëiBadiaSextenToblachStilfsVöran, and Mühlwald.

The alpine valleys between 1,400 and 1,700 metres (4,600 and 5,600 ft), with a subarctic climate — Dfc, with harsh winters (24-hour averages in January between −9 and −5 °C (16 and 23 °F)) and cool, short, rainy and foggy summers (24-hour averages in July of about 12 °C (54 °F)). These areas usually have five months below the freezing point, and snow sometimes occurs even during the summer, in September. This climate is the wettest of the province, with large rainfalls during the summer, heavy snowfalls during spring and fall. The winter is usually a little drier, marked by freezing and dry weeks, although not sufficiently dry to be classified as a Dwc climate. Main municipalities in this area are CorvaraSëlvaSanta Cristina Gherdëina.

The highlands above 1,700 metres (5,600 ft), with an alpine tundra climate, ET, which becomes an ice cap climate, EF, above 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). The winters are cold, but sometimes not as cold as the higher valleys' winters. In January, most of the areas at 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) have an average temperature of about −5 °C (23 °F), while in the valleys at about 1,600 metres (5,200 ft), the mean temperature may be as low as −8 or −9 °C (18 or 16 °F). The higher lands, above 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) are usually extremely cold, with averages of about −14 °C (7 °F) during the coldest month, January.

Geology[edit]

 

Langkofel group in the western Dolomites in winter

The periadriatic seam, which separates the Southern Alps from the Central Alps, runs through South Tyrol in a southwest-northeast direction. In South Tyrol at least three of the four main structural elements of the Alps come to light: the Southern Alpine comes to light south of the periadriatic suture, the Eastern Alpine north of it, and in the northern part of the country, east of the Brenner Pass, the Tauern window, in which the Peninsular and, according to some authors, the Helvetic are visible.[29]

In South Tyrol, the following structure can be roughly recognized: The lowest floor forms the crystalline basement. About 280 million years ago, in the Lower Permian, multiple magmatic events occurred. At that time the Brixen granite was formed at the northern boundary of the Southern Alps, and at about the same time, further south in the Bolzano area, there was strong volcanic activity that formed the Adige Valley volcanic complex. In the Upper Permian a period began in which sedimentary rocks were formed. At first, these were partly clastic sediments, among which the Gröden sandstone is found. In the Triassic, massive carbonate platforms of dolomitic rocks then formed; this process was interrupted in the Middle Triassic by a brief but violent phase of volcanic activity.

In South Tyrol, the Eastern Alps consist mainly of metamorphic rocks, such as gneisses or mica schists, with occasional intercalations of marble and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks with metamorphic overprint (e.g., in the Ortler or southwest of the Brenner). Various metamorphic rocks are found in the Tauern Window, such as Hochstegen marble (as in Wolfendorn), Grünschiefer (as in Hochfeiler), or rocks of the Zentralgneiss (predominantly in the area of the Zillertal Main Ridge).[30]

The province of South Tyrol has placed numerous geological natural monuments under protection. Among the best known are the Bletterbach Gorge, a 12 km (7½ mile) long canyon in the municipality of Aldein, and the Ritten Earth Pyramids, which are the largest in Europe with a height of up to 30 metres (98 ft).[31]

Mountains[edit]

 

Tre Cime di Lavaredo in the Sexten Dolomites bordering the province of Belluno

According to the Alpine Association, South Tyrol is home to 13 mountain groups of the Eastern Alps, of which only the Sarntal Alps are entirely within national borders. The remaining twelve are (clockwise, starting from the west): Sesvenna Group, Ötztal Alps, Stubai Alps, Zillertal Alps, Venediger Group, Rieserferner Group, Villgratner Mountains, Carnic Alps, Dolomites, Fleimstal Alps, Nonsberg Group and Ortler Alps. Of particular note are the Dolomites, parts of which were recognized by UNESCO in 2009 as a "Dolomite World Heritage Site".

Although some isolated massifs approach 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) and show strong glaciation (especially in the Ortler Alps and on the main ridge of the Alps), South Tyrol is by far dominated by mountains with altitudes of between 2,000 and 3,000 metres (6,600 and 9,800 ft). Among the multitude of peaks, the Dolomites are the highest in the Alps. Among the large number of peaks, three stand out for their alpine or cultural importance: the Ortler (3,905 metres, 12,812 ft) as the highest mountain in South Tyrol, the Schlern (2,563 metres, 8,409 ft) as the country's "landmark" and the Drei Zinnen (2,999 metres, 9,839 ft) as the center of alpine climbing. Other well-known mountains are the Königspitze (3,851 metres, 12,635 ft), the Weißkugel (3,739 metres, 12,267 ft), the Similaun (3,599 metres, 11,808 ft), the Hochwilde (3,480 metres, 11,417 ft), the Sarner Weißhorn (2,705 metres, 8,875 ft), the Hochfeiler (3,509 metres, 11,512 ft), the Dreiherrnspitze (3,499 metres, 11,480 ft), the Hochgall (3,436 metres, 11,273 ft), the Peitlerkofel (2,875 metres, 9,432 ft), the Langkofel (3,181 metres, 10,436 ft) and the Rosengartenspitze (2,981 metres, 9,780 ft).

The extensive mountain landscapes, about 34% of the total area of South Tyrol, are alpine pastures (including the 57 square kilometres (22 sq mi) of the great Alpe di Siusi). Along the main valleys, the mountain ranges descend in many places to valley bottoms over gently terraced landscapes, which are geological remains of former valley systems; situated between inhospitable high mountains and formerly boggy or deeply incised valley bottoms, these areas known as the "Mittelgebirge" (including, for example, the Schlern area) are of particular importance in terms of settlement history.[32]

Valleys[edit]

 

Val Badia, near the town of Badia

The three main valleys of South Tyrol are the Adige Valley, the Eisack Valley and the Puster Valley, formed by the Ice Age Adige glacier and its tributaries. The highest part of the Adige valley in western South Tyrol, from Reschen (1,507 metres or 4,944 feet) to Töll (approx. 500 metres or 1,600 feet) near Meran, is called Vinschgau; the southernmost section, from Bozen to Salurner Klause (207 metres or 679 feet), is divided into Überetsch and Unterland. From there, the Adige Valley continues in a southerly direction until it merges with the Po plain at Verona.

At Bolzano, the Eisack Valley merges into the Adige Valley. The Eisack Valley runs from Bolzano northeastward to Franzensfeste, where it merges with the Wipp Valley, which runs first northwestward and then northward over the Brenner Pass to Innsbruck. In the town of Brixen, the Eisack Valley meets the Puster Valley, which passes through Bruneck and reaches Lienz via the Toblacher Sattel (1,210 metres or 3,970 feet). In addition to the three main valleys, South Tyrol has a large number of side valleys. The most important and populated side valleys are (from west to east) Sulden, Schnals, Ulten, Passeier, Ridnaun, the Sarntal, Pfitsch, Gröden, the Gadertal, the Tauferer Ahrntal and Antholz.

In mountainous South Tyrol, about 64.5% of the total land area is above 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) above sea level and only 14% below 1,000 metres (3,300 ft).[33] Therefore, a large part of the population is concentrated in relatively small areas in the valleys at an altitude of between 100 and 1,200 metres (330 and 3,940 ft), mainly in the area of the extensive alluvial cones and broad basins. The most densely populated areas are in the Adige valley, where three of the four largest cities, Bolzano, Merano and Laives, are located. The flat valley bottoms are mainly used for agriculture.

Hydrography[edit]

 

Braies Lake or Pragser Wildsee

The most important river in South Tyrol is the Adige, which rises at the Reschen Pass, flows for a distance of about 140 kilometres (87 mi) to the border at the Salurner Klause, and then flows into the Po Valley and the Adriatic Sea. The Adige, whose total length of 415 kilometres (258 mi) in Italy is exceeded only by the Po, drains 97% of the territory's surface area. Its river system also includes the Eisack, about 100 kilometres (62 mi) long, and the Rienz, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) long, the next two largest rivers in South Tyrol. They are fed by numerous rivers and streams in the tributary valleys. The most important tributaries are the Plima, the Passer, the Falschauer, the Talfer, the Ahr and the Gader. The remaining 3% of the area is drained by the Drava and Inn river systems to the Black Sea and by the Piave river system to the Adriatic Sea, respectively.[34]

In South Tyrol there are 176 natural lakes with an area of more than half a hectare (1¼ acre), most of which are located above 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) altitude. Only 13 natural lakes are larger than 5 ha, and only three of them are situated below 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) altitude: the Kalterer See (215 metres, 705 ft), the Großer (492 metres, 1,614 ft) and the Kleiner Montiggler See (514 metres, 1,686 ft). Fourteen South Tyrolean reservoirs used for energy production include the Reschensee (1,498 metres, 4,915 ft), which with an area of 523 hectares (2.02 sq mi) forms the largest standing body of water in South Tyrol, the Zufrittsee (1,850 metres, 6,070 ft) and the Arzkarsee (2,250 metres, 7,382 ft).

The natural monuments designated by the province of South Tyrol include numerous hydrological objects, such as streams, waterfalls, moors, glaciers and mountain lakes like the Pragser Wildsee (1,494 metres, 4,902 ft), the Karersee (1,519 metres, 4,984 ft) or the Spronser Seen (2,117–2,589 metres, 6,946–8,494 ft).[35]

Vegetation[edit]

 

Group of spruce and pine trees in Latemar forest

Approximately 50% of the area of South Tyrol is covered by forests,[36] another 40% is above 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) and thus largely beyond the forest demarcation line, which varies between 1,900 and 2,200 metres (6,200 and 7,200 ft). In each case, more than half of the total forest area is located on land with a slope steeper than 20° and at altitudes between 1,200 and 1,800 metres (3,900 and 5,900 ft). Approximately 24% of the forest area can be classified as protective forest preserving settlements, traffic routes and other human infr